(Low Altitude Wanderers Removed)


The birds below are selected birds from the east slope lodge at Wild Sumaco which presently has 487 birds on its updated list. They update their list frequently and the link for the full list is below. Birds that can be seen on the Tandayapa list are not re-listed here. North American birds have been removed here (57 birds on Sumaco list). Most of the birds that occur with wider ranges into Central America are also removed. This is mainly for reviewing call links for the east side specialties. See the notes for individual birds as well. Birds with their Latin genus names in green are the very specialized east slope birds that would be difficult to see anywhere else in Ecuador.

This list is essentially a mix of east slope birds and birds that spillover from the Amazonian lowlands. Some of the lowland birds may be much more common at the Amazonian drainage altitudes to the east but are only spotty occurrences into the Sumaco foothills. Favored altitudes are listed on virtually all species.

List is now ordered consistent with Clements World checklist, now updated through 2011. Note that Sumaco's list site is not ordered in this manner currently so some of the groups are rearranged here. Their list still has quite a few old names and some Latin name errors which are corrected here. At present this list contains selected specialty species. The full east slope list from Wild Sumaco is here (unmodified). And from the Napo Wildlife center here. A specific bird list for the higher elevation Yanacocha Trust is here. San Isidro area list on the east side above Sumaco is here. And a shortened and location divided list for San Isidro and Guango is here. And the list for the La Selva Lodge in lowland Ecuador is here.

Taxonomy and nomenclature are updated in places from The Birds of Ecuador: Field Guide by Robert S Ridgely and Paul J Greenfield and from the newer Birds of Northern South America by Robin Restall. The plate images in Restall's book are more extensive and of higher quality. Many of these birds also occur in Peru and appear in the beautiful Birds of Peru update from Princeton 2010. Plates there are from at least five artists.

Species latin names in BLUE are linked to calls or call listings. Selected birds to the Macauley recordings search listing at Cornell labs, others to single recordings. (MAC links.) Most linked on latin species name to Xeno Canto's search listing. Here are the site specific Xeno recordings for Wild Sumaco. Recordings from the Macauley site when linked to single recordings can be clicked at the S symbol next to the bird name to see the full recordings list for that species.

Bracketed numbers [XXX:YY] are plate and bird numbers from Birds of Northern South America by Robin Restall. {AAA:BB} are plate and bird numbers for Birds of Peru. Only nine species here do not occur in Peru as well. Numbers linked in brackets in some species to image pages.

Elevational zones:

        Lowlands 150–350 metres. 

        Lower Foothills 350–850 meters. Requires road journey 10 to 15 miles east from the Sumaco Lodge.

        Upper Foothills 850–1300 meters. Essentially the altitude of Sumaco and down the lower road east.

          Lower Subtropics 13002000 meters. Altitude of the lodge and the road as it climbs northwest toward the Andes.

        Upper Subtropics 2000–2400 meters. Volcano Sumaco goes through this altitude zone above the lodge level.

        Temperate zone 2400–3600 meters. Highest point on Volcano Sumaco is close to 3700 meters. Guango Lodge is in this altitude.

        Páramo zone 3600-3800+ meters. The pass from Quito to the east crosses areas in this altitude range. And the upper road at Yanacocha passes through some degraded páramo and reaches a maximum elevation of 3800 metres. This road is rarely visited since you need to have a 4WD or else make a strenuous hike up the Andean Snipe trail from the lower part of Yanacocha.

Globally Threatened species identified by BirdLife International are in red.

Section numberings (click to jump to the section):

Antbirds 105, Antpittas 126, Falcons 12, Hummingbirds 33, Manakins 167 Ovenbirds 88, Parrots and Macaws 23, Puffbirds 62, Tanagers 188, Tapaculos 131, Thrushes 185, Toucans 72,  Tyrant Flycatchers 133, Woodcreepers 100, Woodpeckers 80, Wrens 180

  1. Grey Tinamou (Tinamus tao kleei) MAC  400- 1600 meters Very rare and little known in Ecuador. Large Tinamou, habits presumed similar to Great. Only a handful of sightings in Ecuador. Dusk singer. Call single noted and not as musical or drawn as Great which is uncommon in Sumaco. But penetrating and lovely with some echo. The Gray is rather vocal apparently and with this fairly distinct call Ridgely believes it is genuinely rare and not just overlooked. [1:6] {1:2}

  2. Black Tinamou (Tinamus osgoodi hershkovitzi) MAC Very rare in Sumaco area and not included in Ridgely and Greenfield since discovered in Ecuador only recently and mainly in the area of Sumaco. Ridgely did state in his 2001 book that he thought it might be likely to occur in Ecuador. Previously known only in Columbia on the east slope. Has a range in Peru well separated from Ecuador locations. Could only be mistaken for the Gray. Call crepuscular, a descending quavering whistle. [1:5] {1:1}

  3. Highland Tinamou (Nothocercus bonapartei plumbeiceps) 1600-2200 meters East slope bird only in Ecuador with no confirmed west slope sightings. Only 2 records for Sumaco area. Uncommon, though Ridgely thinks the range is contiguous on the east slope subtropical zone and it has just not been proven there. The scarcely seen bird is often heard in Central America but nearly impossible to see as it moves only rarely when calling and calls apparently only from cover when it does bother to call. [1:1] {1:5}

  4. Undulated Tinamou (Crypturellus undulatus yapura) MAC Below 600 meters Uncommon bird which normally occurs at lower altitudes. Commoner there. Shy but prefers more open woods than above species. Three note whistled call distinctive. The Little Tinamou is likely the most common Tinamou at Sumaco. It is smaller still than the Undulated which has yellow legs and is overall much paler than the Little. [2:3] {2:4}

  5. Speckled Chachalaca (Ortalis guttata) Generally below 1100. Uncommon in Sumaco area but very vocal and easily localized. Arboreal and gregarious like many in the genus. Pheasant sized with an overgrown tail. Dawn is the chorus time for groups to talk including calls close to cha-cha-la-ca. Lovely group recording here. [9:5] {9:2}

  6. Spix's Guan (Penelope jacquacu) Only Penelope in the east and occurs locally to 1000 meters. Only two records in Sumaco area. Paired or single birds with some honking calls like a dinosaur or a lion or a six foot bullfrog and an amazing squeal. Wattled Guan (otherworldly, flying-saucer-trying-to-start-noise) is uncommon in Sumaco. And the Sickle-winged Guan is likely the commonest in the group there with some wing snapping and monkey calls. [10:6] {10:6}

  7. Nocturnal Curassow (Nothocrax urumutum) Very rare bird in Sumaco as generally a 400 meter or less bird of the lower lands. Often calls in full dark, booming hooting notes. One was camera trap photographed on the Sumaco lodge trails. [10:1] {11:5}

  8. Rufous-breasted Wood-Quail (Odontophorus speciosus soederstroemii) As with most Wood-Quail they can be heard but very difficult to see. 800-1800 meters. Listed as fairly common in the Sumaco area but generally scarce elsewhere on the east slope southward. [8:6] {9:3}

  9. Grey-bellied Hawk (Accipiter poliogaster) Two records for this scattered distribution bird with odd movements in the Austral seasons. A very dark-backed and almost Goshawk sized Accipiter with an ornate facial pattern in red in the immature. Immature remarkably like the Ornate Hawk-Eagle. Four other wider ranging Accipiters occur in Sumaco including a single record for the Semi-collared. Mostly recorded below 400 meters. [31:1] {31:3 1/2}

  10. Black Caracara (Daptrius ater) Uncommon but apparently expanding with forest removal and likes to track into areas along new roads and openings. Regularly up to 1200-1350 meters from the lowlands where it prefers swampy and riverine habitats. Call a rough raucous "whaaaarrrr." [41:1] {42:2}

  11. Lined Forest-Falcon (Micrastur gilvicollis) Four Micrasturs occur in the Sumaco area. This one occurs mostly below 700 in the lowlands but ranging to 1500 meters. Lined and Barred listed as fairly common for the area which seems rather, well, hopeful. And this may be by voice as usual, as these birds are notoriously hard to see, never leaving subcanopy areas and often calling from dense tall tree perches. Call four or even five rising notes wiht the last note lower and shorter. "Uhhr uhhhr UHHRR uhhr." [42:3] {32:3}

  12. Buckley's Forest-Falcon (Micrastur buckleyi) Mostly a lowland falcon also, though it is now known to at least an uncommon status in the foothills at Sumaco. Known as the Lesser Collared previously and very similar to the Collared except by calls and outer tail feathers (four bars instead of six) and by favored habitat. Oddly the Collared is listed as the rarest Micrastur for Sumaco. Call is mournful and often three noted with pause before the final lower quieter note. "Owww owww.......uhoow." [42:6] {33:3}

  13. Orange-breasted Falcon (Falco deiroleucus) Very rare and a cliff nester, mostly seen below 1400 meters but can occur up to 2500. Very loyal to established nesting areas. Significantly larger than the Bat Falcon. Likely only a handful of pairs in the eastern sections of Ecuador where it occurs. [43:4] {44:1}

  14. Chestnut-headed Crake (Anurolimnas castaneiceps) Uncommon listing for Sumaco. Mostly below 700 but as high as 1000 meter sightings. Does not need surface water. [44:2] {46:5}

  15. Blackish Rail (Pardirallus nigricans) Does occur along the base of the Andes and known between 400 and 1650 meters this is the higher of the rails for the east. Listed as uncommon for Sumaco. Does come out into openings and even seen running across roads. Frequent vocalizer. "Wheeeirrrrr whee, whheeiirrrrrr whee." [46:3] {46:1}

  16. Maroon-chested Ground-Dove (Claravis mondetoura) Three records of this rare bird in Sumaco. Recorded between 500-3500 meters. May be decreasing due to forest fragmentation. A dense cover bird that likes bamboo seeding. [65:7] {67:2}

  17. Grey-fronted Dove (Leptotila rufaxilla) Three records and recorded along the eastern base of the Andes to 1100 meters. A Leptotila that loves dense habitat. Heard more often than seen but the only one in its genus in the Sumaco area. Extensive Amazonian range. Single drawn "whoooooo." [66:8] {67:5}

  18. Sapphire Quail-Dove  (Geotrygon saphirina) Very rare bird in Sumaco area and usually below 1100 meters. A water and ravine lover and like every bird in its genus a stealthy forest floor walker. The more common White-throated and very rare (for area) Ruddy Quail-Doves also occur in the Sumaco area. [67:3] {68:2}

  19. Military Macaw (Ara militaris) Rare anywhere but it is a Macaw of 800 to 1500 meter eastern slopes. Usually seen flying over between feeding and roosting sites. Compare with the much more common Chestnut-fronted Macaw (raw scraping cawwwww) [69:1] and the much smaller Maroon-tailed Parakeet (high pitched creee creeee creee) [72:2] which is also fairly common in the Sumaco area and sounds like a parakeet. There is now a single record of the lowland Red-bellied Macaw {69:2} at Sumaco as well. Flight call of the Military a donkey bray crossed with a hiccough. [68:3] {69:4}

  20. White-eyed Parakeet (Aratinga leucophthalma callogenys) A fairly common bird for the Sumaco area. Long tailed as the Aratingas are. In flight, wrist with bright red and yellow mark on the overall darker wings from below. Red flecking on head and neck very variable. Generally below 1100 in the lowlands but seasonally into the foothills to 1600-1700. Often in fairly large groups. Call "chekk chekk." But has several harsh notes and calls. [70:4] {70:2}

  21. Dusky-billed Parrotlet (Forpus sclateri) Uncommon in the Sumaco area and scarce elsewhere. Forpus with a dark-over-light bicolored bill. Sexually dimorphic with males extensively blue-rumped and with secondaries and coverts blue. Normally a lowland bird of below 500 meters but ranges to 900-1000 meters along the eastern Andes base where it will be the only Forpus species. Blue-wings do not wander to the Andean base. Call sharp "wheeets". Chatter almost sparrow-like. [74:4] {73:6}

  22. Spot-winged Parrotlet (Touit stictopterus) MAC Rare parrotlet of 1100-1800 meters in the eastern slopes. Very difficult bird to detect so may be more common. The Scarlet-shouldered Parrotlet ranges to 1400 meters out of the lowlands but has not been seen to date at Sumaco. It would be the only other Touit likely. Call "wheeickk wheeekk wheeek" rapid and sharp. [74:8] {74:3}

  23. Orange-winged Amazon (Amazona amazonica) The big lowland Amazon that has only one record in Sumaco. Orange wing speculum distinct in this area in a big parrot though not easy to see in flight from below. Bright yellow cheek patch may be easier. Call much more drawn and screechy than Scalies. Frequent two note calls like "bucckk wheattt". Outnumbered by far by the Scaly-naped Amazon on the eastern slopes which is an altitude loving Amazon of 1200-2600 meters and sounds like a fast harsh Green Treefrog "juurrrt juurrrt". Scalies have some red in the tail unlike OWs. No confirmed Mealy records at this point though it is possible. The smaller Pionus species Blue-headed and Red-billed are both at Sumaco as well. [77:2] {76:4}

  24. Foothill (Río Napo) Screech-Owl (Megascops guatemalae napensis) MAC Rare small owl of 500-1000 meters on the east slopes. Distinctive toad-like trill call. The Tropical Screech-Owl was listed as a below 650 meter bird in Ridgely but Sumaco states it is the most common Megascops there. Second to the Colombian (Rufescent) which is an altitude associated Megascops. [82:5]

  25. Band-bellied Owl (Pulsatrix melanota) Apparently the fairly common large owl of the Sumaco area. Cousin to the Spectacled which is very rare in the area. The Band-bellied likely replaces the Spectacled at 900-1500 meter levels and is likely present along the whole eastern Ecuadorian slope at this level though Ridgely described it as scarce and local in Volume 1 and uncommon in Volume 2. The difference between the calls is subtle but definitive. Listen for the several cadence shifts in the Band-bellied. [84:6] {82:3}

  26. Short-tailed Swift (Chaetura brachyura) (presumed race cinereocauda) Uncommon in Sumaco listing and usually below 700 meters. Rocking flight with rapid fire high pitched twitter. [89:2] {90:4}

  27. Grey-chinned Hermit (Phaethornis griseogularis) Uncommon at the feeders in Sumaco area but this is an elevation bird of the 600-1700 meter slope range. Group lekking hermit with fairly distinctive voicing on the lek. [93:2] {93:4}

  28. Blue-fronted Lancebill (Doryfera johannae) Uncommon at the feeders at 400-1400 meters. Occurs with Green-fronted at the feeders in that range. Lacks the copper posterior neck. Male is very dark headed and both species with the long straight bill. [94:4] {101:1}

  29. Lazuline Sabrewing (Campylopterus falcatus) Very rare sabre that is unlikely to be mistaken for anything else. Narrow range of 1900-2100 meters and found only in western Napo in Ecuador. Impressive red tail in both sexes. [94:9]

  30. Napo Sabrewing (Campylopterus villaviscensio) Uncommon feeder bird in Sumaco area. And nearly an endemic bird found at 900-1700 meters. Pictured on separate page in Restall. Very similar to the Santa Marta Sabrewing of Columbia. [95:3] {95:1}

  31. Violet-headed Hummingbird (Klais guimeti) Fairly common feeder bird in Sumaco area. 800-1700 meters on the east slope and seasonal. Retained here though it has a Central American range. [96:3] {98:4}

  32. Wire-crested Thorntail (Discosura popelairii) Uncommon feeder bird in Sumaco area. Another east slope specialty. 600-1600 meters. A tail-cocking feeder like the west slope Thorntail. [96:6] {98:2}

  33. Fork-tailed Woodnymph (Thalurania furcata viridipectus) Mainly below 1000 but ranging up to 1700. Common feeder bird in the Sumaco area. Sumaco recording is the highest on Xeno at 1500. Certainly the only Woodnymph in that area. [98:2] {96:2}

  34. Golden-tailed Sapphire (Chrysuronia oenone) Common feeder bird in the Sumaco area and ranges between 400-1200 meters including most of the eastern base of the Andes. [98:10] {99:4}

  35. Many-spotted Hummingbird (Taphrospilus hypostictus) Fairly common feeder bird in the Sumaco area. Pretty uncommon elsewhere and a 500-1200 meter ranging bird. Monotypic genus and poorly understood habits in Ecuador. Compare with female Violet-fronted Brilliant. [99:7] {102:1}

  36. Rufous-vented Whitetip (Urosticte ruficrissa) Rare feeder bird in Sumaco. 1300-2200 meter range. Replaces the Purple-bibbed on the eastern slopes. [107:10] {106:5}

  37. Ecuadorian Piedtail (Phlogophilus hemileucurus) Fairly common feeder bird in the Sumaco area. Though listed as scarce in Ridgely. 900-1300 meter range. Tends to stay low in the forest and has a distinctive male display often performed in groups. [101:7] {101:5}

  38. Violet-fronted Brilliant (Heliodoxa leadbeateri sagitta) Rare feeder bird in Sumaco. Replaces Green-crowned in the east at slightly higher elevations of 1300-2100 meters. One of four Heliodoxa in Sumaco. Fawn-breasted also occurs but much more common in the NW. [101:8] {102:2}

  39. Black-throated Brilliant (Heliodoxa schreibersii) Uncommon feeder bird in the Sumaco area. Strikingly marked Brilliant, especially the female with her pale moustache. Fairly scarce overall and mostly below 1250 and occasionally to 1450 meters. [102:1] {102:3}

  40. Gould's Jewelfront (Heliodoxa aurescens) Uncommon feeder bird in the Sumaco area. Mostly below 500 and up to 900 meters in Ridgely. Obviously ranging higher in Sumaco at the feeders. Male and female similar. Both with chestnut crescent on throat upper chest and some chestnut in the tail. Even juvies show chest crescent. [101:5] {96:6}

  41. Bronzy Inca (Coeligena coeligena) Very rare bird in the Sumaco area and the only Inca. 1400-2300 meter range. Favors red flowers and is a trap liner. Like the other Coeligena, not that common at feeders. Collared occurs on the east slope but only above 2100 meters. Apparently not seen on the higher Volcan Sumaco slopes yet. [104:2] {104:2}

  42. Chestnut-breasted Coronet (Boissonneaua matthewsii) Only 2 records of this higher elevation bird that is known from 1900 to 2700 meters. One Xeno recording at Guango Lodge at 2700 meters. The only Boissonneaua in the area but it is unclear why the Buff-tailed Coronet is not recorded at Sumaco. Ridgely mentions specimens from Volcan Sumaco itself. Very short billed compared to the Starfrontlets, glittering green throat over the deep chestnut belly. [105:8] {104:1}

  43. Long-tailed Sylph (Aglaiocercus kingi mocoa) Rare feeder bird in Sumaco. Found at higher elevations above 1600 meters. Similar to the Violet-tailed of the NW. [111:2] {105:2}

  44. Black-eared Fairy (Heliothryx auritus) Uncommon in Sumaco area and Fairies are not easily lured to feeders. Recorded up to about 1200 meters along the east Andean base. Similar flashy tail and acrobatic flight as the Purple-crowned of the west. [109:3] {110:1}

  45. Amethyst Woodstar (Calliphlox amethystina) Rare feeder bird in Sumaco. 300-1400 meter bird. Scattered distribution in Ecuador with large range in the eastern Amazon basin. White-bellied Woodstar also occurs rarely at feeders in Sumaco and has a wide ranging elevation mostly above Sumaco. Long forked tail in male Amethyst with no posterior eye stripe as in White-belly. White-belly male tail forked but much shorter extension. Amethyst female often with some glittering red on the throat. [110:2] {110:5}

  46. Gorgeted Woodstar (Chaetocercus heliodor cleavesi) Uncommon in Sumaco and rare and local elsewhere northward on the eastern slopes. 1100-1800 meter range and some higher. Xeno recordings are from Guango Lodge at 2600 meters, visiting a feeder. Elongated gorget in males with no posterior eyestripe. Females with essentially all of their belly cinnamon. [110:4]

  47. Green-backed (Amazonian White-tailed) Trogon (Trogon viridis) Rare in Sumaco with a normal range of about 900-1000 meters. Dominant Trogon in the area is the Collared. It has a prominent white ladder tail in the males. And males are green-white-red beneath. The higher elevation Masked has only a few records in the area but is common in San Isidro area. Also with green-white-red males. Female Collared is unmasked. Call GB more "twooos twoos towws" where both Collared and Masked (very similar voices) higher pitched "whiieews". [112:4] {112:4}

  48. Blue-crowned Trogon (Trogon curucui peruvianus) Uncommon in Sumaco area. Ranges along the base of the Andes in the east to about 1100. Most of the recordings are from below 1000 meters. Call rapid "werrt werrt werrt werrt werrt werrt werrt". [113:2] {112:5}

  49. Highland (Andean) Motmot (Momotus aequatorialis) Uncommon in Sumaco area. Though definitely the most common Motmot in the Sumaco area. Fairly common higher in San Isidro area. The Rufous on the east side has an unnotched tail and does not frequently ascend from the lowlands. The Broad-billed is not confirmed from the lowlands here and also has an unnotched tail in the east. Call bouncing multi-noted but certainly in recognizable Motmot language. [116:5] {113:2}

  50. Striolated Puffbird (Nystalus striolatus) Rare in Sumaco though a bird of 800-1700 meter range. Far carrying cry. Map for Ecuador in B of NSA is incorrect, it does not occur away from the base of the Andes in its separate Ecuadorian range. Call "whipp weee WEEE     whewww." [120:1] {118:1}

  51. Black-streaked Puffbird (Malacoptila fulvogularis) Uncommon in Sumaco area. And this is an elevation Puffbird of 1100-2000 meters. Often occurs with the Coppery-chested Jacamar. Ridgely believes it deserves a near threatened status. Wheezy whistle and insect-like bouncing with some very high pitched notes "chee cheee cheee chee che che che." [120:3] {118:3}

  52. Coppery-chested Jacamar (Galbula pastazae) Uncommon around Sumaco. Ranging 750-1500 meters it is a true elevation Jacamar. The only one on the east slopes. Rising "wheeps" like a loud Great Crested Flycatcher crossed with a raptor. [118:2] {116:4}

  53. Gilded Barbet (Capito auratus punctatus) Fairly common in Sumaco area and mostly found below 1200 but ranges to 1700 meters. Follows bird flocks at low and high levels of canopy. Motmot like "whoot whoop   whoot whoop  whoot whoop" paired hoots speeding up as they go. [123:1] {121:1}

  54. Chestnut-tipped Toucanet (Aulacorhynchus derbianus) Uncommon green toucanet but replaces the Crimson-rumped on the east slopes. Generally 800-1800 meter range. Repetitive barking like many in the genus. This one somewhat squawky as well. [125:4] {123:4}

  55. Golden-collared Toucanet (Selenidera reinwardtii) Uncommon Selenidera toucanet. Mostly below 800 but ranges in smaller numbers up to 1200 meters. Tail up and beak down and back and forth when calling. A very unusual "growl groawwl growl groawl" over and over. Impressively froglike. [126:1] {124:1}

  56. Chestnut-eared Aracari (Pteroglossus castanotis) Rare Pteroglossus of the four known from the area. Normally found up to 1000 meters along the base of the Andes. The Aracari with the red belly band on yellow for the area. Call definitely two noted "teee sikkk." [127:2] {122:4}

  57. Many-banded Aracari (Pteroglossus pluricinctus) Fairly common Aracari in the area, making it the most common for Sumaco. Named for the multiple belly bands. Mostly below 800 meters but up to 1200 and higher at Sumaco. Quick seeikkk call repeated. [127:7] {122:6}

  58. Black-mandibled Toucan (Ramphastos ambiguus) Rare Ramphastos for most sites is listed as fairly common for the Sumaco area. It is an altitude lover at the 1000-1600 meter range. Channel-bills are generally lower altitude at 700 meters (to 1100 and higher rarely) but is also listed as fairly common in Sumaco area. The map for the CB in B of NSA is totally incorrect. Sharp "Eeewww eww-eww." [129:1] {124:2}

  59. Cuvier's (White-throated) Toucan (Ramphastos [tucanus] cuvieri) Uncommon third Ramphastos for the area. Previously in the Red-billed Toucan group but now separate. Up to 1250 meters along the base of the Andes. Similar to Channel-bill with no golden or yellow on the throat. Call "wheeukk whewww   wheeuckk wheewww." [130:3] {124:3}

  60. Rufous-breasted Piculet (Picumnus rufiventris) Uncommon and striking Piculet that is mostly below 1100 but up to 1500 in the Sumaco area. [132:3] {126:3}

  61. Lafresnaye's Piculet (Picumnus lafresnayi) Uncommon bar bellied Piculet of mostly below 1200 but up to 1400 meter range. Once again map in B of NSA is incorrect for Ecuador. Rapid fire call "chhe che che ch ch ch ch ch ch." [131:3] {125:1}

  62. Spot-breasted Woodpecker (Colaptes punctigula guttatus) Rare woodpecker with the distinctive breast markings. Widespread at lower elevations. Occurs mostly up to 1200 but to 1600 in some areas on the east Andean slope. Call like a higher pitched Pileated. [134:11] {128:2}

  63. Yellow-tufted Woodpecker (Melanerpes cruentatus) Common listing for Sumaco. Which is unusual for the altitude. Generally up to 1200 meters. Likes slashed and open areas. A very dark Melanerpes. [133:7] {127:2}

  64. Little Woodpecker (Veniliornis passerinus agilis) Uncommon Veniliornis that is very olive and favors bamboo habitats in river edge forests. Pale white moustache. Mostly below 700 meters but up to 1300 in areas. Smoky-brown also occurs in Sumaco. [134:6] {127:4}

  65. Yellow-vented Woodpecker (Veniliornis dignus baezae) MAC Three records for this higher altitude Veniliornis. Generally above 1400 meters. Fairly common at San Isidro. [134:7] {126:7}

  66. Crimson-crested Woodpecker (Campephilus melanoleucos) Uncommon Campephilus that is the more common of the two that occur. Generally below 900 meters but up to 1350. The Crimson-bellied is the only other large woodpecker in the area but is rare on the east slope and between 1000-1700 meters. [137:3] {130:6}

  67. Dark-breasted Spinetail (Synallaxis albigularis) Fairly common up to 1500 and as high as 1800. Bird of grassy clearings and borders. One of only two Synallaxis in the area. Similar to the west slope's Azara's. An Amazonian bird that wanders up the bases of the mountains. [141:3] {142:4}

  68. Dusky Spinetail (Synallaxis moesta brunneicaudalis) Fairly common as well in Sumaco area. 250-1350 on the east slope. Much darker than above species. Apparently even more skulking than other spinetails. Likes bamboo. [141:4] {143:1}

  69. Ash-browed Spinetail (Cranioleuca curtata cisandina) Uncommon bird of the 900-1700 meter range. The only Cranioleuca in the area. Moss-covered limb specialists traveling in family groups sometimes. Very high pitched "chee chee chee chee chee chee che che chewww." [145:6] {145:1}

  70. Spectacled Prickletail (Siptornis striaticollis nortoni) Very rare bird of east slope at elevations of 1300-2300 meters. Like a Xenops with a normal bill. Creeps along branches probing leaves and mossy clusters. High pitched sustained twitter rising and falling. [143:2] {155:3}

  71. Eastern (Striped) Woodhaunter (Hyloctistes subulatus) Rare lowland bird mostly below 1100 but up to 1700. Territorial singer that replaces the Western Woodhaunter on this side of the mountains. [146:2] {151:2}

  72. Montane Foliage-gleaner (Anabacerthia striaticollis montana) Fairly common bird that is very similar to the Scaly-throated of the west slopes. Rufous tailed and plain backed. Ranges mostly 1000-1800 meters. Accelerating decelerating chips. [146:7] {149:4}

  73. Rufous-rumped Foliage-gleaner (Philydor erythrocercum subfulvum) Very rare up to about 1300 on the east side. More of a lowlands bird. Note the subspecies in Ecuador has much less prominent eyeline. Rufous extend sup onto the rump. Call is a sharp "weet weet weet weet" laugh. Buff-fronted Foliage Gleaner is rare in the Sumaco area. [144:10] {150:3}

  74. Rufous-tailed Foliage-gleaner (Philydor ruficaudatum) Uncommon in Sumaco (which seems backward) and generally found up to about 600 meters. Often confused with the above species which is much more common in the lowlands. A flock lover. Call wren-like "brrrp brrrp brrrep brrrep brrrep." Stated in Ridgely that this has never been heard in Ecuador. This Macauley recording from 1993 from the amazing Theodore Parker belies that. He has an extended commentary there. Recorded at 900 meters. God bless him. [144:9] {150:5}

  75. Black-billed Treehunter (Thripadectes melanorhynchus) Fairly common at Sumaco and between 1000 and 1700 meters. A secretive loner. Generally lower than the Striped Treehunter that is above 1500 meters and has not been seen as low as Sumaco. [147:3] {153:2}

  76. Grey-throated Leaftosser (Sclerurus mexicanus) Rare east slope bird with very few records in Ecuador. 700-1700 meters. May be overlooked on the east slope. Tawny-throated occurs also and is rare as well. Essentially lacks the pale throat. [148:3] {154:1}

  77. Sharp-tailed Streamcreeper (Lochmias nematura sororia) Uncommon along rocky streams and rivulets at 700-1300 meters (ranges higher in Peru). Similar appearance to the Leaftossers but no Leaftosser is spotted underneath with this very scaled breast pattern. The two Leaftossers in Sumaco (Gray-throated and Tawny-throated) are not stream dwellers. Song is a long squeaky chipmunk rattle going up and then down. Call just two or three harsh notes of the same. [148:6] {154:5}

  78. Long-tailed Woodcreeper (Deconychura longicauda connectens) Very rare to 1700 mostly along the eastern slopes but also along the Napo river. Map in B of NSA is incorrect, showing no Ecuador range. Likely because east Andean birds are an undescribed species. See Xeno's map at the song link. This link is the foothill species which has a very different song and is from 1300 meters in Peru. No Ecuador recordings on Xeno. Song of the lowland bird is wailing with slowing and speeding cadence that seems random sometimes, each note sliding up or down. Can go on for some time. [149:3] {131:1}

  79. Buff-throated Woodcreeper (Xiphorhynchus guttatus guttatoides) Rare Sumaco area resident and another strong beaked Woodcreeper, with a very buffy throat. Usually below 700 meters but up to 1000 in areas. Call very different from Olive-backed. Strong "CHewww" notes. And "chu chuu chu chu chu chuuu chuu chuu." [151:6] {132:2}

  80. Olive-backed Woodcreeper (Xiphorhynchus triangularis) Fairly common east slope resident between 1000-2100 meters. Only true elevation woodcreeper in the area. True for the Peruvian east slope as well. The Buff-throated is a rare event at Sumaco altitude. Best recording is actually here from Macauley. Mainly a descending trill "wee weee weee weee weeee wee weee wee."[152:2] {134:2}

  81. Lined Antshrike (Thamnophilus tenuepunctatus tenuifasciatus) Common Sumaco area bird. And an east slope resident between 400-1400 meters. Replaced by the Barred at lower levels to the east. Has the typical bouncing ball antshrike call speeding at the end with the accented upticking final note that can be wheezy. [156:4] {157:5}

  82. White-shouldered Antshrike (Thamnophilus aethiops) Uncommon and mostly below 1000 meters except in Sumaco area to 1500-1700 levels. Sounds remarkably like a Forest-Falcon with both its single nasal call notes and the "uhn uhn uhn uhn uhn" calls. [157:3] {159:3}

  83. Black-capped (Plain-winged) Antshrike (Thamnophilus schistaceus capitalis) Rarest of the three Thamnophilus in the area. Up the east slope from the lowlands to 1000-1300 at the highest. Unmarked wings in the male, rufous capped female. Nasal call "Raww raar raww raww raww raww raww reaAHH." [157:6] {159:2}

  84. White-streaked Antvireo (Dysithamnus leucostictus) Rare east slope specialist in this genus and nearly endemic to Ecuador. Named for the female with her black and white streaked breast and rufous cap. Male is mostly dark. Found between 1300-1800 meters. Ridgely thought it would be found in Columbia and it has been recorded there now along with the few records in Peru and Venzuela. All recordings on Xeno are from Wild Sumaco lodge in January 2011. Song a scrapey hen turkey-like series slowing slightly "Rrrp rreep rrreep rrrp rrrp rrrp rrrpp." Mournful. Compare this Venezuelan recording. Calls vibrato whistled notes. [159:6] {160:1}

  85. Bicolored Antvireo (Dysithamnus occidentalis) Three records of this extraordinarily limited range bird. Disappeared for half a century until 1991 relocated at Volcan Sumaco. 1500-2050 meters. Female dark cheste dwith no stripes and chestnut cap. Song "Peer peer peer peer peer peer peer," slightly bouncy, song rises and falls. Very different tone from White-streaked. [159:5] {160:3}

  86. Stripe-chested Antwren (Myrmotherula longicauda soderstromi) Uncommon mostly between 400 and 1200 meters. Does not wander far from the Andean base in the east. Call a monotone "chew-dip che-dip che-dip che-dip che-dip che-dip" with double noted structure and slowing at the end. [160:8] {164:3}

  87. Foothill Antwren (Epinecrophylla spodionota) Uncommon Sumaco bird from about 600-1425 meters in the east Andes. Males with dark and light checkered throat. Female rufous with rufous dotted wing coverts. The Slaty Antwren {165:6} is also an uncommon area bird. Dark throated males. Notes of Foothill mostly sharp "T-t-t-t-t-t-t-t-tt--t-t-t-t-t." [161:3] {163:3}

  88. Ornate Antwren (Epinecrophylla ornata saturata) Fairly common in its limited range in Ecuador and in the 250-1200 meter range. Compare to the Foothill. This has the checkered throat in the red-brown females. Males are dark throated and white spotted on wing coverts. Song high pitched spin down "tsee tsee tsee" notes. Call slower and squeakier "psee pseee pseeee pseeee pseeee pseeuuuh." [161:5] {163:2}

  89. Plain-winged Antwren (Myrmotherula behni) Rare resident in the east slopes and virtually limited to the Sumaco area in Ecuador. Essentially 1200-1450 meters. The single recording on Xeno is from Sumaco and it is the call only. As per the name, no spots on the wing on either sex. [161:7]

  90. Yellow-breasted Antwren (Herpsilochmus axillaris aequatorialis) Fairly common and another east slope specialty between 800-1700 meters. Likes mixed flocks. Herpsilochmus antwrens are smaller and wing-barred birds. Call a rapidly accelerating trill beginning with squeaks and slowing slightly at the end. Best Xeno recording. [163:7] {167:6}

  91. Rufous-winged Antwren (Herpsilochmus rufimarginatus frater) Fairly common with a range down the long slope of the Andes and also in Central America. Strongly marked bird. Female is rufous capped and rufous winged. Call a prolonged bouncing "per per perrr r r rr r rrrr rr ik it skikkk." Variable, somewhat like a scolding wren. [163:5] {167:4}

  92. Blackish Antbird (Cercomacra nigrescens aequatorialis) Common Sumaco area dark Cercomacra that range up to 1800 from the 500 range. Song "where-do where-do peer peer pEEr pe-pe-pe-pe peeer." Bouncing at the end. Duets with slower female. Sometimes just peers. Rising up on the peers. [165:8] {169:3}

  93. Black Antbird (Cercomacra serva) Uncommon lowland bird also that ranges up to 1300 level. Black, Blackish and Gray all very similar visually. And the White-backed Fire-Eye {162:6} is a common Sumaco bird and is also all black except the small back spot. Call sharper rising and falling, slowing at the end. Song of Black "wherrt wherrt wherrt whert wehrt weEEht weEEht." Speeding at the end and sharpening. [165:1] {169:4}

  94. Black-faced Antbird (Myrmoborus myotherinus elegans) Uncommon lowland antbird that stays low in the forest understory. Red-eyed in both sexes. Mostly below 700 meters but up to 1300. "Wheel wheel whee whee whee whee whee." [166:1] {170:2}

  95. Spot-backed Antbird (Hylophylax naevius theresae) Fairly common cousin to the Spotted from Central America and the west lowlands. Mostly below 700 meters but up to 1100-1200. Song "wee tee wee tee wee tee wee tee wee tee." Or "wee peet wee peet..." Accelerating, like a harsh Black-and-white Warbler.[171:2] {175:2}

  96. Scale-backed Antbird (Willisornis [Hylophylax] poecilinotus lepidonota) Uncommon relation of the above. Darker with prominent back scaling. Song drawn, high-pitched and accelerating "weeEEet weeEEet weeeeEEet weeeeEEet weeeEEet weeeEEeet." [171:1] {175:3}

  97. Short-tailed Antthrush (Chamaeza campanisona punctigula) Fairly common east slope specialty. Ranging between 950-1700 meters. Frequent singer, stays in the underbrush. A different genus and completely different appearance from the two Formicarius species also reported in Sumaco, the Black-faced and the Rufous-breasted. Totally different call as well, bouncing "whooew whooew whoo whoo who who who who who." Sometimes with terminal gear shift to "whoop whoop whoop whoop." Speeding at the end. Making it one of the more haunting calls of the area. [173:4] {176:2}

  98. Plain-backed Antpitta (Grallaria haplanota chaplinae) Fairly common Sumaco bird and as with all Antpittas, likely more common based on calls than sightings. Described as 'exceptionally secretive' which in this group means invisible. Included here despite being a NW bird as well. Rare there. This is an altitude antpitta at 1100-1700 in the east. The Scaled Antpitta is a very rare occurrence in the area as well. [175:3] {177:4}

  99. White-bellied Antpitta (Grallaria hypoleuca catanea) Rare bird of the east slope at 1400-2200. Apparently San Isidro has a focused concentration and this is slightly above the Sumaco elevations. San Isidro has nine species of Antpitta (see that list). This species shows up in fragmented areas, tree falls and forest edges. So actually can be seen. Call a fine three note whistle. Pause after the first note. "Wheet    wheet wheeEEet." Easily imitated. [176:7] {179:1}

  100. Chestnut-crowned Gnateater (Conopophaga castaneiceps) Fairly common in the Sumaco area at 800-2000 meters on the east slope and southward. These are forest floor foragers. And all are wing-flickers while foraging. Call a burry "grree gree gree grrre grrre grrrr    grrrr." Makes a rattle as well and has a sharp "chewwkk" squeak note like a woodpecker. [180:3] {181:3}

  101. Long-tailed Tapaculo (Scytalopus micropterus) Rare bird on the east slope and really not that impressively long-tailed. A dark solitary Tap found near streams. As with all, most often heard and not seen. Song two note tick tock rhythm "Crrrk chuckk crrr chuckk crr chucck crr chucck" often going on until it seems to run out of energy. [183:1] {184:1}

  102. Northern White-crowned Tapaculo (Scytalopus atratus) Fairly common on the east slope in Sumaco area. Ranging 850-1650 meters. Diagnostic white cap. Gray Treefrog-like "Cherp cherip cherrp cherrp chip." Only two Taps in the area. [181:3] {184:5}

  103. White-fronted Tyrannulet (Phyllomyias zeledoni leucogonys) Uncommon and difficult Tyrannulet of the 600-1500 meter range. In the complex with Rough-legged and Zeledon's. Dark gray capped in Ecuador with faded wingbars. Washed yellow beneath. Call a high-pitched "sweeeeuu."[187:1]

  104. Plumbeous-crowned Tyrannulet (Phyllomyias plumbeiceps) Uncommon Phyllomyias also on the east slope at 1200-2200 meters. Song bouncy "Chip chip chip chip chipeeeeddewwww." Very similar in appearance to the Variegated Bristle-Tyrant (see below). [187:5] {187:2}

  105. Golden-faced Tyrannulet (Zimmerius chrysops) Common lowlands to 2200 in the east and around Sumaco. Split from the Choco of the NW by some. Definitely golden faced. With a dark iris as opposed to the Red-billed Tyrannulet. Makes a nice "toooo weeEET" call. And has some "teeEWw teww teww" dawn songs. [187:12] {189:2}

  106. Red-billed Tyrannulet (Zimmerius cinereicapilla) Rare east Andean bird and likely overlooked. Several definite records in Sumaco area and in the south but very difficult anywhere else. 900-1350 meters. Larger east slope range in southern Peru. Two records from Bolivia. Pale iris which is unlike the similar Phylloscartes and Phyllomyias species. Two toned bill may not be easy to see. Single notes of "chii weeet." And fairly fast paced "pwee PWEE PWEE PWEE pwee pweet." [187:8] {189:3}

  107. Foothill Elaenia (Myiopagis olallai) Uncommon bird and only discovered in 1990s in the eastern Andes. Almost endemic with some records from Peru in just the last few years. Surely Sumaco must be one of the best places in the world to see it. Song sharp "chirriIIp chiir cheirrr cheerrrrrrrrreeEEtttt." Plain gray head contrasts with olive back. The only Myiopagis Elaenia in the area until Forest is confirmed. The very rare Sierran {192:1} is in Elaenia. And the White-crested {192:2}, also in Elaenia, is common higher and into San Isidro. [188:10] {190:5}

  108. Sulphur-bellied Tyrannulet (Mecocerculus minor) A single record for this altitude loving east slope specialist at 1600-2800 it tends to be higher than Sumaco. More common at the slightly higher San Isidro Lodge where it is listed as common. Rufous wingbars, compare with White-tailed Tyrannulet, ("Pseee pssee pseee pseeettt") also at San Isidro. Nasal squeaky descending "dweeet dweet dweet duuitt." Very different from WT Tyrannulet. [191:2] {195:3}

  109. Ecuadorian Tyrannulet (Phylloscartes gulaquizae) Fairly common east slope bird at 700-1400 meters. Related to the Bristle-Tyrants. Nearly endemic with some spillover into Peru. Distinctive double spindown call "DzzzzEEeeeerr EEErrrr." [193:3] {187:5}

  110. Rufous-browed Tyrannulet (Phylloscartes superciliaris) Two records of this rare east slope bird that tends to be more southerly in Ecuador. 1300-1700 meters. Now a few Zamoroa area recordings from Ecuador on Xeno. White cheek and rufous brow line are distinctive. [193:11] {188:5}

  111. Variegated Bristle-Tyrant (Pogonotriccus poecilotis) Two records of this east slope bird that ranges 1500-2000 meters, mainly just above Sumaco. Listed as FC in San Isidro area. Darker overall than the Marble-faced {187:4} which also occurs in Sumaco and is much more common both here and higher at San Isidro. Variegated has rufous wingbars. "Tssiiip tsip tsip tseeeew tee tee tee ti ti." Much higher pitched than Plumbeous-crowned Tyrannulet which has yellow wingbars. [193:9] {187:3}

  112. Spectacled Bristle-Tyrant (Pogonotriccus orbitalis) Rare east slope bird with a broken range along the east slope in the 700-1400 meter level. Has a whitish eye ring and lacks the black ear mark of the Marble-faced. Compare to Plumbeous-crowned Tyrannulet and Ecuadorian Tyrannulet. "Tttttttttt" and "tttttttt TU TI TEEE." [193:7] {187:6}

  113. Buff-throated Tody-Tyrant (Hemitriccus rufigularis) Uncommon in Sumaco and a rare east slope bird otherwise. Very few records in Ecuador. 1300-1500 meters, preferring slopes and elevations east of the actual Andes proper, exactly like Sumaco. Nasal "wheeiip wheeipp wheeipp WHEEIPP WHEEIPP." Sounds more like a woodcreeper than a small flycatcher. [186:5] {201:3}

  114. Black-and-white Tody-Flycatcher (Poecilotriccus capitalis) Uncommon in the lowlands and up to 1350 meters. Distinctive white line along the back in both sexes. Female with a chestnut forehead. [185:12] {202:3}

  115. Golden-winged Tody-Flycatcher (Poecilotriccus calopterus) Uncommon bird at Sumaco in limited range. From the lowlands up to 1300 meters. Like a Common Tody with a dark eye and a golden wing patch. [185:11] {203:5}

  116. Large-headed Flatbill (Ramphotrigon megacephalum) Uncommon Flatbill with a smaller bill. Odd scattered range and bamboo lover with a distinctive voice. 300-1300 meters. Song like a whistled cuckoo "WHUUwww whooo." Second note lower. [194:5] {204:4}

  117. Olive-faced Flatbill (Yellow-breasted Flycatcher) (Tolmomyias flaviventris viridiceps) Uncommon bird in Sumaco up to 1100 meters at the base of the Andes. Recognition of split differs. Western Amazonian calls in the Xeno link refer to this bird. [195:4 B of NSA has not split] {205:5}

  118. Yellow-throated Spadebill (Platyrinchus flavigularis) Rare east Andean bird with a scattered range. 750-1700 meters with only a few records in Ecuador of the genuinely rare bird. The White-throated Spadebill {206:6} also occurs in Sumaco and is much more common. Call "brrreeeEEEE PEW." [195:9] {206:5}

  119. Olive-chested Flycatcher (Myiophobus cryptoxanthus) Common in Sumaco area and mainly 400-1400 with some ranging to 1800 meters. The similar Orange-crested {208:3} in this genus also occurs but is very rare in this section of the east slope. The Flavescent {208:4} and Handsome {208:5} ("tsee tsitsitsitsitsi twew") both in this genus, occur higher and are common at San Isidro replacing this species. Call "peeer zhezhezhe zheee." [197:6] {207:3}

  120. Euler's Flycatcher (Lathrotriccus euleri bolivianus) Uncommon up to the base of the Andes and to 1300 meters from the lowlands. Huge range in South America. Very plain bird shown with the Empids. And our Acadian is a rare migrant to the Sumaco area. [198:2] {209:2}

  121. Rufous-tailed Tyrant (Knipolegus poecilurus peruanus) Two records of this truly scarce bird at 1000-2000 meters in border zones. Sallies for insects from a perch. Does not travel with mixed flocks. Several Chat-Tyrants occur higher at San Isidro including the Yellow-bellied {217:1} (descending sneeze call) and Slaty-backed {217:5}(rising-falling buzzy note). Not known lower at present. [202:11] {212:6}

  122. Short-crested Flycatcher (Myiarchus ferox) Fairly common Myiarchus and occurs here with the Dusky-capped. Generally below 1000 meters. Slightly larger and less yellow on belly and vent. Huge lowland range in Amazonia. [205:6] {224:2}

  123. Scarlet-breasted Fruiteater (Pipreola frontalis squamipectus) Rare east slope Pipreola. Could be confused in the area only with the below species. 1000-1700 meters. Females extremely close. This is the larger of the two species. Black-chested Fruiteater occurs above 1500 in the area, no records yet for Sumaco list. And the Scaled Fruiteater is found on the east side as well. Also rare there. [211:6] {232:3}

  124. Fiery-throated Fruiteater (Pipreola chlorolepidota) Rare east slope bird as well. May be overlooked. 600-1250 meters. Smallest Pipreola and at the lowest elevations. High pitched descending chip. [211:2] {232:1}

  125. Andean Laniisoma (Shrike-like Cotinga) (Laniisoma elegans buckleyi) Very rare east slope Fruiteater. Split from the Venezuelan Elegant by some. Recordings in Ecuador are from Sumaco in 2008. 400-1400 meters. A small bar-bellied fruiteater found near streams in tall forests. [210:2] {231:5}

  126. Gray-tailed Piha (Snowornis subalaris) Uncommon east slope Piha with a definite gray tail. 500-1400 meters. Xeno recordings are all from 1350-1500 meters. The Olivaceous Piha should occur here as well but no records on Sumaco list. Call intense electrical "PEEE UUU." [214:1] {232:5}

  127. Amazonian Umbrellabird (Cephalopterus ornatus) Rare Sumaco area bird that has a second habitat at 900-1300 along the east Andean base. Unmistakable unless you see a female Fruitcrow out of range with a very bad hairdo. [216:1] {233:1}

  128. White-crowned Manakin (Dixiphia pipra coracina) Fairly common Manakin of 500-1500 meters. Leks of males display a butterfly like flight and flash the white caps. Call there is a cat like "dzzeeeuwww." [217:7] {236:2}

  129. Blue-rumped Manakin (Lepidothrix isidorei) Fairly common elevation loving Manakin at 1000-1700 meters. Flight display similar to lower elevation Blue-crowned. Flies back and forth on slender branches. Giving the call "Wheee-eeetTT." [217:5] {237:6}

  130. Striped Manakin (Machaeropterus regulus striolatus) Rare Manakin replaces the Club-winged in the same genus on this east side. Does make some mechanical buzzing wing noise but only when females are close. Normal lekking call is the two noted "whoo-cheeeuw." Like a dainty whistled sneeze. [220:2] {235:1}

  131. Jet Manakin (Chloropipo unicolor) A single record for this poorly known bird of 1450-1700 meters. Almost all the records from Ridgely were mist netted birds. Dark males with white underwing coverts. [221:1] {236:3}

  132. Yellow-headed Manakin (Xenopipo flavicapilla) Listed as unconfirmed but two of the three known records at the time of Ridgely's printing were in the Sumaco area. Apparently none since. In Ecuador 1500-2100. Mostly in Columbia but no recordings anywhere of the male. Voice in Ridgely stated as unknown but four recordings now from Columbian populations. Lekking behavior also unknown. Distinctive yellow capped males. [220:7] 78:14 in Birds of Ecuador.

  133. Wing-barred (Piprites) Manakin (Piprites chloris tschudii) Uncommon bird of mostly below 1100 meters. Does not act like a Manakin, more like an insect hunting Becard. Impressive wingbars. Loud far-carrying song also nothing like a Manakin. "Wherrp wherp wherrp wherrp wheiip   widdip  whip   whip?" [221:6] {234:6}

  134. Yellow-cheeked Becard (Pachyramphus xanthogenys) Uncommon on the east slope and the split species has a small patch of range in Peru but otherwise Ecuadorian. 650-1700 meters. A border and clearing bird. A laughing whistle "du du du dee dee dee deee deee deee." [222:2] 75:1 in Birds of Ecuador.

  135. Rufous-naped Greenlet (Hylophilus semibrunneus) Fairly common Sumaco listing though known in Ecuador only from Sumaco area. 900-1600 meters. Only a few records at the time of Ridgely. Not shown in Ecuador in B of NSA. [227:9] 81:15 in Birds of Ecuador.

  136. Olivaceous Greenlet (Hylophilus olivaceus) Common east slope specialist at 600-1450 meters. Pale-eyed and uniform colored. Fortunately distinctive and loud song. [226:7] {240:3}

  137. Violaceous Jay (Cyanocorax violaceus) Uncommon lowland jay that is normally below 500 meters. Ranges in open areas and is noisy and conspicuous when present. [228:4] {241:2}

  138. Inca Jay (Cyanocorax yncas) Uncommon east slope jay of 1300-2200 meters. More common at higher end of this range. Conspicuous, noisy and distinctive when present. [228:9] {241:4}

  139. Thrush-like Wren (Campylorhynchus turdinus hypostictus) Fairly common bird mainly of the lowlands but ranges into the 1100 meter range and higher along the Andes base. To 1400 in Peru. A large wren with a far more musical voice than the others in the genus. Ridgely names it one of the great voices of Amazonia. Rapid fire in duet "Whee tuuu tuuu tuuu, whip tuuu tuuu tuuu." [232:3] {246:1}

  140. Coraya Wren (Thryothorus mystacalis griseipectus) Fairly common Sumaco bird normally of the lowlands that is generally found below 700 meters. Often paired and less musical than other Thryothorus. "Whee-you chew chew chew cheww." And "wheel a cheee cheww wheewwwww." Complex duets of the combination. [237:5] {248:1}

  141. Chestnut-breasted Wren (Cyphorhinus thoracicus) Very rare bird of 1100-2000 meter range that favors elevations above Sumaco like Guacamayos. Skulky undergrowth bird with an ethereal voice. Whistles in triads or repeated pairs high low high low: "wheeeee wheeew, wheeeee wheeewww." [238:4] {247:1}

  142. Musician Wren (Cyphorhinus arada salvini) Uncommon relative of above wren in Sumaco that favors lower elevations at mostly below 1000. Overlaps in the 1000-1200 range. Wary of humans in the woods. Song is essentially indescribable in written alliteration but easily one of the most impressive in the woods anywhere. Sounds synthesized and unreal. [238:5] {247:2}

  143. Wing-banded Wren (Microcerculus bambla albigularis) Fairly common bird in Sumaco with an isolated dot of range in western Napo away from the main range in eastern South America. 400-1300 meters. As reclusive as the Southern Nightingale-Wren which is unconfirmed for the Sumaco area for now. Song with long vibrato notes and quavers shifting pitch from one note to the next pausing in between like its cousin. Also interspersed runs of "wheee wheee wheee wheee." Much better singer as far as the melodic structure. [236:3] {247:3}

  144. Pale-eyed Thrush (Turdus leucops) Uncommon elevation thrush of 1000-2000 which does occur on the west slope but is much less common there. Listed as scarce overall by Ridgely. Apparently a very wary thrush. The Glossy Black is a higher elevation bird including San Isidro where Pale-eyed is also more common. There is only one record of GB in Sumaco. Both the Great and the Chestnut-bellied occur above Sumaco in the higher elevation areas. Chirpy phrasing with pauses. [241:5] {254:4}

  145. Black-billed Thrush (Turdus ignobilis debilis) Common Sumaco Turdus that is more common lower but occurs up to 1200 along the Andean base. Looks like a washed out version of the below species. In Ecuador, throat is almost unmarked. Sometimes tame and likes open areas. [245:2] {256:2}

  146. White-necked Thrush (Turdus albicollis spodiolaemus) Uncommon lower elevation thrush which also makes it up to 1100 along the mountain bases. Much less often seen, shy forest lover. Note that the race in Ecuador is dark-billed. [243:4] {255:2}

  147. Chestnut-vented Conebill (Conirostrum speciosum) Very rare bird in Ecuador at 400-1200 meters. Most of range in Amazonia. No voice recordings in Ecuador but presumed similar. [268:3] {273:4}

  148. Orange-eared Tanager (Chlorochrysa calliparaea bourcieri) Fairly common east slope specialty at 1000-1700 meters. Similar to the Glistening-green of the west slopes. Active and aerobactic, likes mossy limbs, does mix in flocks. [261:2] {271:3}

  149. Golden-eared Tanager (Tangara chrysotis) Uncommon east slope bird of 1100-1700 meters. Similar to the Saffron-crowned which is very rare in the Sumaco area. Without the bright head markings. Washed in soft greens mostly. Golden-naped is uncommon in the area as well. [262:1] {268:7}

  150. Blue-browed Tanager (Tangara cyanotis lutleyi) Rare east slope bird at 1400-1900 meters. Close to the Metallic-green of the west slope. Dark backed with a blue eyebrow line and the pale belly underwash. [263:7] {268:5}

  151. Straw-backed Tanager (Tangara argyrofenges caeruleigularis) Two records of this bird mostly known from the southern slopes in the east at 1350-1600 meters. Fairly distinctive light over dark markings for this area. [265:2]

  152. Paradise Tanager (Tangara chilensis) Common multi-colored, yellow green-masked bird( turquoise flanks, red rump) of 1200 meters and below. [261:8] {270:2}

  153. Green-and-gold Tanager (Tangara schrankii) Uncommon lowland tanager similar to the Emerald of northwest Ecuador. Black eye mask but yellow green washed otherwise. Mostly below 1100 meters. [261:10] {269:7}

  154. Spotted Tanager (Tangara punctata zamorae) Fairly common altitude bird in Ecuador. 900-1500 meters in Ecuador. Large range of second subspecies in Eastern Amazonia. Looks more scaled than spotted on head and breast. Leaf gleaner and often on terminal leaves. [262:3] {269:3}

  155. Yellow-throated Tanager (Iridosornis analis) A single record for this altitude tanager, that runs 1400-2200 in the eastern slopes. A scarce bird anywhere apparently. Like the Purplish-mantled of the west. [260:3] {266:5}

  156. Rufous-crested Tanager (Creurgops verticalis) Three records for this odd tanager in its own genus. Runs fairly high at 1500-2500 meters. Not a common vocalizer. [253:7] {258:2}

  157. Silver-beaked Tanager (Ramphocelus carbo) Common and the only Ramphocelus in the area. more common below 1100 meters. Silvered lower mandible like several in the genus. Huge Amazonian range. [257:3] {257:2}

  158. Vermilion Tanager (Calochaetes coccineus) Very rare east slope bird of 1100-1800 meters. Rich red color with black wings and black chin. [257:1] {274:5}

  159. Fulvous Shrike-Tanager (Lanio fulvus peruvianus) Uncommon lowland bird of below 1100 meters with an elongate beak and black head and wings on a golden body. [253:4] {262:1}

  160. Ashy-throated Bush-Tanager (Chlorospingus canigularis signatus) Uncommon bird of the east slope and southwestern slope. 1000-1900 meters on the east slope. Gray headed and olive yellow bodied. Much more common Yellow-throated BT also here at Sumaco. [249:6] {264:3}

  161. Magpie Tanager (Cissopis leverianus) Common mostly lowland bird spilling over to 1200 meters. Distinctive large black and white tanager, like a jay or our northern Magpies. Sharp "pittt" call. Song odd and rapid series of "pitts" and "wheer wheers". [248:3] {257:5}

  162. Golden-collared Honeycreeper (Iridophanes pulcherrimus) Uncommon east slope bird that is also listed for the NW but only a few records there. 1100-2000 meters in the east. Blue-winged tanager-like honeycreeper. [267:6] {271:4}

  163. Black-faced Dacnis (Dacnis lineata) Uncommon lowland bird in the east. The western birds now comprising the Yellow-tufted Dacnis. Below 1200 meters in the east. [266:3] {272:2}

  164. Black-and-white Seedeater (Sporophila luctuosa) Fairly common altitude associated seedeater that breeds at high altitudes in the 2400 range and descends into the lowland and foothills seasonally in the east. Sharply demarked males with no white on the rump at all. Females dull and similar to the other Sporophila species. [276:2] {285:2}

  165. Chestnut-bellied Seedeater (Sporophila castaneiventris) Common at below 1300 meters and apparently spreading upward in the east. Striking males take several years to get the full chestnut underbelly. Females dull uniform brown. [277:3] {285:3}

  166. Deep-blue (Golden-eyed) Flowerpiercer (Diglossa glauca tyrianthina) Fairly common in its limited east slope range. 1000-1800 meters. Broader range in Peru. B of NSA map is not complete. Only Diglossa in the area. Bright golden eye. High pitched chipping chatter. [269:5] {275:4}

  167. Olive Finch (Arremon castaneiceps) Very rare and local anywhere. 800-1800 meters. A dark Arremon. Previously in another genus. Very different Orange-billed is the only other Arremon here. Telegraphic, impressively high pitched song. "Tsee tsuu tsee tsee tsee tseeee tseeee." [283:5] {287:5}

  168. Yellow-browed Sparrow (Ammodramus aurifrons) Common lowland sparrow apparently common up into Sumaco and related to our Grasshopper Sparrow. Sits on exposed perches to sing. Stays near grassy areas below 1300 meters. Sings an insect like trill as well. [271:6] {277:2}

  169. Subtropical Cacique (Cacicus uropygialis) Uncommon east slope altitude Cacique. 1000-2100. Now separated from the west  slope Scarlet-rumped (still lumped on Xeno). Conspicuous and noisy, often with Inca Jays. Only other Cacique in the area, the higher elevation Mountain Cacique of San Isidro has a Yellow-rump. The Oropendolas in the area have white beaks but yellow tails and both the Crested and Russet-backed are in Sumaco and fairly common. [296:6] {297:6}

  170. Blue-naped Chlorophonia (Chlorophonia cyanea longipennis) Uncommon bird of altitude in eastern Ecuador. 800-2000 meters. Inconspicous and slow moving, often flocking together. Loves mistletoe. Call a mournful "seeeeuuu." [305:9] {302:5}

  171. Bronze-green Euphonia (Euphonia mesochrysa) Fairly common true altitude Euphonia. 1100-1800 meters. Both sexes look like females of another species of Euphonia. They do have a pale blue-gray nape in good light. [304:8] {304:3}

  172. Olivaceous Siskin (Carduelis olivacea) Fairly common altitude east slope Siskin at 900-1700 meters. Only other siskin likely in the area is the unconfirmed Yellow-bellied which is fully black backed. Very similar to the higher altitude Hooded, which is not known from as low as Sumaco yet but very common higher up. [303:2] {301:5}