TANDAYAPA BIRD LODGE

Tandayapa Bird Tours Annotated Checklist


 

The following list was modified from Tandayapa’s Day trips list from their website (here is their recently updated link with maps) and it contains all the species known to have been reliably recorded by their lodge guests (and their guides) on day-trips based out of Tandayapa Bird Lodge. This mainly includes sites within an hour and a half drive in a car from the lodge, but it also includes sightings from a few sites further away (2–2.5 hours) that hold special birds.  A few species needing further confirmation are not included.

This list is not necessarily consistent with the Tandayapa Valley list, since it only includes species seen by guests of the lodge and their guides, and it does not include anything from before November 1999, when Tandayapa Bird Lodge opened.

List now ordered consistent with Clements World checklist, now updated through 2010. At present this list contains a total of 629 species, including 59 hummingbirds, 64 tanagers, and 51 restricted-range species. Only 70 are North American species. Compare the west slope list from Wild Sumaco here (unmodified). Asterisk marked birds below are also on Wild Sumaco's list.  And from the Napo Wildlife center here. And also the La Selva lodge in Napo. A specific bird list for the higher altitude birds of Yanacocha is here.


The likelihood of seeing each species (in the correct season) on a typical seven-day tour is scored on a scale from one to six.

Number format is (current [prior update] species, #NA). Note the shift toward rare with the new updates.

1:  Common and conspicuous: should be seen on every tour. (133 [151] species, 15)

2:  Fairly common, seen on most tours, but occasionally missed. (119 [110] species, 7)

3:  Uncommon, still seen on roughly half the tours. (125 [143] species, 10)

4:  Uncommon to rare and seen on fewer than half the tours. (82 [37] species, 7)

5:  Rare and/or very difficult Never expected, seen on a few tours. (97 [104] species, 12)

6:  Very rare, vagrant or found in very remote and hard to visit sites. Not seen every year. (73 [60] species, 19)


Taxonomy and nomenclature are updated in places from The Birds of Ecuador: Field Guide by Robert S Ridgely and Paul J Greenfield and from the newer Birds of Northern South America by Robin Restall. The plate images in Restall's book are more extensive and of higher quality.

RED species names are for non-Central American, non-NA species. RED numbered species are on the main Lodge list.

Species names in BLUE are linked to calls or call listings. Many to the Macauley recordings search listing at Cornell labs, others to single recordings. Some at Xeno Canto's search listing. Here are the site specific Xeno recordings for Tandayapa. Recordings from the Macauley site when linked to single recordings can be clicked at the S symbol next to the bird name to see the full recordings list for that species. Bracketed numbers [XXX:YY] are plate and bird numbers from Birds of Northern South America by Robin Restall. Numbers after family headings are plate pages for Birds of Ecuador. Numbers linked in brackets in some species to image pages.

Elevational zones:

        Lowlands 150–350 metres.  Includes Puerto Quito and the Rνo Caonν Valley, and the remnant forests NW of La Celica.  Note that 150 m is the lowest elevation included in this checklist area.

        Lower Foothills 350–850 metres.  Includes Rνo Silanche, Mangoloma, Salto del Tigre, Four Rivers and the lower part of Pacto-Guayllabillas road.

        Upper Foothills 850–1300 metres.  Includes Los Bancos, the Milpe Bird Sanctaury, the Milpe road, Mindo town and the middle part of the Pacto-Guayllabillas road.

          Lower Subtropics 1300–2000 metres.  Includes the lower Tandayapa Valley, Paz de las Aves, the lower part of the old Nono-Mindo road, the upper part of the Pacto-Guayllabillas road, the Mashpi road, and the lower part of Puluahua.

        Upper Subtropics 2000–2400 metres.  Includes the upper Tandayapa Valley, Paz de las Aves, the middle part of the old Nono-Mindo road, the upper part of the Pacto-Guayllabillas road, the Mashpi road, and the middle part of Puluahua.

        Temperate zone 2400–3600 metres.  Includes most of Yanacocha, Calacalν, the road from Nono to Yanacocha, the upper part of Puluahua, and the upper part of the old Nono–Mindo road.

        Pαramo zone 3600-3800+ metres. The upper road at Yanacocha passes through some degraded pαramo and reaches a maximum elevation of 3800 metres, which is the highest elevation included in the daytrips area. This road is rarely visited since you need to have a 4WD or else make a strenuous hike up the Andean Snipe trail from the lower part of Yanacocha. For this reason, the birds up here are all code 5 or 6.

Globally Threatened species identified by BirdLife International are marked CR = Critically Endangered, EN = Endangered, VU = Vulnerable.  Near Threatened species are marked NT, Data Deficient species are marked DD.


Section numberings (click to jump to the section):

Antbirds 289, Antpittas 314, Barbets 225, Cotingas 414, Cuckoos and Anis 106, Emberizine Finches 567, Falcons 54, Hummingbirds 146, Jays 446, Kingfishers 215, Manakins 424, Motmots 213, New World Warblers 486, Other Raptors 23, Orioles and Blackbirds 608, Ovenbirds 249, Owls 116, Parrots and Macaws 92, Puffbirds 218, Grosbeaks 600, Siskins, Euphonias and Goldfinches 616, Swallows and Martins 448, Swifts 138, Tanagers 503, Tapaculos 325, Thrushes 471, Toucans 229,Trogons and Quetzals 205, Tyrant Flycatchers 331, Vireos 439, Woodcreepers 278, Woodpeckers 234, Wrens 454


TINAMOUS (TINAMIDAE)

1          Tawny-breasted Tinamou (Nothocercus julius) –6– Incredibly shy and difficult to see.  Has occasionally been heard singing in the Upper Tandayapa Valley and at Yanacocha.  Has been seen once along the Toucan trail at the Lodge. Wet highland forests even higher in elevation than its cousin the Highland Tinamou. Stealthy and solitary. Repetitive call, even when heard, rarely leads to sighting. [1:2]

2          Berlepsch's Tinamou (Crypturellus berlepschi) NT –6– One record of a bird seen and taped at the end of Milpe road on 21 July 2008, and several recent sightings at Rνo Silanche in December 2010. Chocσ Restricted Range Species. [2:7]

3          Little Tinamou* (Crypturellus soui) –5– Fairly common in lowland and foothill forest, including second growth, but it is amazingly difficult to see. I think it is likely heard 100% of the trips to the lowland at Rio anyway. This is the small lowland Tinamou. Often in packs in Central America and frequently runs across any open areas to reach the shade and safety of the woods.

4          Curve-billed Tinamou (Nothoprocta curvirostris) –4– Notably un-vocal as reflected by the perfect abscence of any recordings anywhere in the large collections, this species is occasionally seen along the entrance road to Yanacocha. Known from 3000M and higher, associated with nearby Paramo where it is likely the only Tinamou around. Still stays to the patches of cover near these grasslands. Has a three note whistled song which apparently no one has ever heard. [3:9]

 

DUCKS, GEESE, SWANS (ANATIDAE)

5          Torrent Duck* (Merganetta armata) –4– Rather scarce in this area.  Occasionally seen along the river between Tandayapa and Nono, and in Mindo. Usually paired and sedentary. Often perches on large boulders in the swift streams it favors. Silent or overborne by river noise most of the time. [4:6]

 

GUANS & CHACHALACAS (CRACIDAE)

6         Rufous-headed Chachalaca (Ortalis erythroptera) –1– Frequently seen in and near the Tandayapa Valley. Comes to feeders at Paz de las Aves. Singles and pairs, mostly arboreal, near forest edges. Quite tame on the west slopes.

7         Andean Guan (Penelope montagnii) –3– Fairly common in Yanacocha, and occasionally seen at various sites along the road from Tandayapa to Yanacocha. [10:8]

8         Wattled Guan* (Aburria aburri) NT –5– Frequently heard near Tandayapa and along the road into Mindo, but it is very shy and hard to see. [9:10]

9         Sickle-winged Guan* (Chamaepetes goudotii) –1– Frequently seen in and near the Tandayapa Valley. Comes to feeders at Paz de las Aves. Singles and pairs, mostly arboreal, near forest edges. Quite tame on the west slopes.

 

NEW WORLD QUAILS (ODONTOPHORIDAE)19

10         Rufous-fronted Wood-Quail (Odontophorus erythrops) –4– Frequently heard in the lowland and foothill areas but very hard to see.  Four Rivers is the most reliable site. Call repetitive "quui-ipp quo-ipp qui-ipp qui-dipp qui-dipp" and even a hollower "coouu-popp coou-pop". Map in B of NSA is incorrect.

11         Dark-backed Wood-Quail (Odontophorus melanonotus) NT –4– Replaces the previous species at higher elevations, and is just as hard to see.  The trails at Tandayapa are your best bet. Comes to Paz de las Aves feeder. Favors ravines and undergrowth heavy areas. Can break with sudden covey bursts and often duets in calling. Contact covey calls, purring, and also mournful solo "peer peer peer peer." Chocσ Restricted Range Species. [8:5]

 

CORMORANTS & SHAGS (PHALACROCORACIDAE)

12          Neotropic Cormorant (Phalacrocorax brasilianus) –5– Regular along the Rνo Caonν near Puerto Quito, but few of our tours visit that area.  Occasionally recorded at the fish ponds by the Restaurante Mirador Rνo Blanco in Los Bancos.  One record of three birds flying over the Milpe road on 30 Oct 2002, two at Rνo Silanche on 13 Aug 2005, and a couple of records from the Tandayapa Valley.

 

FRIGATEBIRDS (FREGATIDAE)

13          Magnificent Frigatebird (Fregata magnificens) –6– There are at least three records of overflying males: two in the Tandayapa Valley and one at Rνo Silanche.  We assume they are this species as the chances of a Great Frigatebird occurring is extremely small.

 

HERONS, BITTERNS, EGRETS (ARDEIDAE)

14         Fasciated Tiger-Heron* (Tigrisoma fasciatum) –5– Very shy and secretive.  It is probably found along rushing streams and rivers throughout the whole region but has been seen very few times. [23:7]

15         Great Egret (Ardea alba) –3– Mostly a lowland species, but regularly seen in flight in the foothills.  Occasionally found in wetlands in the Mindo area.

16         Snowy Egret (Egretta thula) –2– Most often seen in the Mindo area.

17         Cattle Egret* (Bubulcus ibis) –1– Common in open country and cow pastures from lowlands to lower subtropics.

18         Striated Heron (Butorides striatus) –5– A few sightings from Mindo and near Rνo Silanche. A Green Heron relation with the same habits. [23:3]

 

NEW WORLD VULTURES (CATHARTIDAE)

19         Black Vulture* (Coragyps atratus) –1– Common in lowlands and foothills.  Uncommon higher.

20         Turkey Vulture* (Cathartes aura) –1– Common in lowlands and foothills.  Uncommon higher.

21         Andean Condor (Vultur gryphus) NT –5– A few sightings at Yanacocha. Reverse flight color pattern (with large secondary wing panels of white) from the King Vulture which stays in the lowlands and is not common west of the Andes. [26:6]

 

OSPREY (PANDIONIDAE)

22         Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) –5– Rare.  Mostly seen during the boreal winter, but one was along the Rνo Blanco near Los Bancos on 30 July 2004.

 

 

KITES, EAGLES, HAWKS (ACCIPITRIDAE)10-16

23         Gray-headed Kite (Leptodon cayanensis) –3– Uncommon in lowlands and foothills.  Regular along the Milpe road. In flight: black wing linings and triple barred tail, pure white breast in adult. [27:2]

24         Hook-billed Kite* (Chondrohierax uncinatus) –3– Generally rare throughout the region, but regularly seen near the quarry on the far side of the Tandayapa Pass. Distinctive beak and head profile.

25         Swallow-tailed Kite* (Elanoides forficatus) –2– Quite common in lowlands and foothills, occasionally higher.  Often soars on sunny days including off the Lodge deck. [28:4]

26         White-tailed Kite (Elanus leucurus) –6– One sighting along the main highway near the town of Pedro Vicente Maldonado on 11 Dec 2003, and several subsequent records in July and August.  This species may be spreading into the area.

27         Snail Kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis) –6– Vagrant.  There is one well-described sighting of a female or immature along the Milpe road on 6 Mar 2004.  This species normally occurs farther southwest.

28         Double-toothed Kite* (Harpagus bidentatus) –2– Found regularly in Rνo Silanche, occasionally in Mindo and near Tandayapa. In flight: all ages with central dark throat line and trailing dark secondary edge line. [27:3, flight 29]

29         Plumbeous Kite* (Ictinia plumbea) –3– Mainly in lowlands and lower foothills, especially Rνo Silanche.

30         Black-chested Buzzard-Eagle (Geranoaetus melanoleucus) –2– Sometimes seen at Calacalν and along the entrance road to Yanacocha. Odd hump-backed wing and back profile when perched. Soaring form all gray with dark tail, impressively wide wings.

31         Cinereous Harrier (Circus cinereus) –6– One record of a bird on the road to Yanacocha in early 2010. [30:3]

32         Tiny Hawk* (Accipiter superciliosus) –4– Rare lowlands and foothills.  Nearly all records from Milpe Road, where a pair nested in late 2002.  One photographed Rνo Silanche 11 Jun 2004. Almost never soars. [31:4]

33         Semicollared Hawk* (Accipiter collaris) NT –5– Rare resident in the Tandayapa Valley. Local anywhere in Ecuador apparently. Few sightings.  On sunny mornings soaring birds should be looked for between Tandayapa and the Upper Valley. Like Tiny Hawk in flight with heavier breast barring in all ages. Voice is actually unknown.

34         Sharp-shinned (Plain-breasted) Hawk (Accipiter striatus ventralis) –4– Mainly subtropics and higher.  Inconspicuous unless found soaring on a sunny morning.  Occasionally swoops on the hummers at the Tandayapa feeders. Smaller than Cooper's Hawk and larger than Tiny on average. [32:1]

35         Bicolored Hawk* (Accipiter bicolor) –5– Very few records, mostly from Mindo, Milpe, and the Tandayapa Valley.  One was photographed at Rνo Silanche on 01 Nov 2004. Rarely soars low over forest and fearless of humans. In flight: legs always with some rufous in all ages, dark tail with thin white bars. [32:2]

36         Plumbeous Hawk (Leucopternis plumbea) NT –4– Rare, but a few are present an Four Rivers, Mangoloma, Rνo Silanche and Milpe. In flight: adult with dark tail and single white tail bar, dark offset wingtips. Does not soar. [32:6]

37         Barred Hawk* (Leucopternis princeps) –3– Regularly seen in the upper foothills and subtropics.  Best located by its loud whistled calls given in soaring flight. In flight: dark head and throat, gray lined belly and wing surface.

38         Semiplumbeous Hawk (Leucopternis semiplumbea) –5– Even rarer, but a few have been seen at Rνo Silanche and NW of La Celica. In flight: adult also with single white tail bar and barred wingtips, belly appears white not dark as in plumbea.

39         Gray-backed Hawk (Leucopternis occidentalis) EN –6– One sighting at Rνo Silanche in July 2003. In flight: adult appears all white except wingtips and dark tail terminal bar on white tail. Like White Hawk (not present in west Ecuador) with different wingtip darkening pattern. Same flight pattern as male pale form Red-backed Hawk only non-Buteo form. Tumbesian Restricted Range Species. [32:9, flight 29]

40         Great Black-Hawk (Buteogallus urubitinga) –6– One seen at the end of the Milpe road 11 Dec 2005.

41         Harris' Hawk (Parabuteo unicinctus) –6– Two sightings in the arid valleys north of Quito along the highway to Tandayapa. [33:5]

42         Roadside Hawk* (Buteo magnirostris) –1– Common and conspicuous from lowlands to subtropics. In flight 4 to 5 bands in the tail and some lemons and oranges in the primary bases. Barred belly. [35:3]

43         Broad-winged Hawk* (Buteo platypterus) –3– A boreal migrant, mainly from upper foothills and subtropics.  Abundance seems to vary from year to year.

44         White-rumped Hawk (Buteo leucorrhous) –4– Rare.  Most often seen in the Tandayapa Valley and between Tandayapa and Nono. Adult flight distinctive, like a black-bellied Broadwing with red and white leggings. Also found on east slope. [36:2, flight 37]

45         Gray Hawk (Buteo nitidus) –4– Resident lowlands and lower foothills, even in rather disturbed habitat. In flight: three gray bands and a black band in the tail, only dark primary tips. [35:4]

46         Short-tailed Hawk* (Buteo brachyurus) –3– Regularly seen from lowlands to lower subtropics. [36:3]

47         White-throated Hawk (Buteo albigula) –5– A presumed austral migrant, recorded between May and September.  Most often seen in the Tandayapa Valley and at Yanacocha.

48         Variable (Red-backed) Hawk (Buteo polyosoma) –3– Uncommon in the temperate zone, rarely down to the subtropics.  A few records from Tandayapa. All adult forms in flight with dark terminal tail band and black wingtips. Red belly band in females some forms. White form even whiter than Gray-backed Hawk, which is not a Buteo. Very scratchy harsh screechs and also some Red-shouldered Hawk type screaming. [38:1]

49         Zone-tailed Hawk* (Buteo albonotatus) –6– Several scattered records in lowlands and foothills, most recently from Milpe road in Nov. 2010. [38:4]

50         Crested Eagle (Morphnus guianensis) NT –6– A few sightings of a juvenile near Tandayapa in early 2002.  Care must be taken in separating this species from the similar juvenile Black-and-chestnut Eagle. Juvenile Crested white and pale grey beneath and juvenile B and C with dark wing tip bars and tail bars in black. Adult Crested flight colors like a huge Barred Hawk with four black tail bars. Perhaps a breeding pair exists in the remote parts of the Bosque Protector Mindo-Nambillo. [39:3, flight 40]

51         Black Hawk-Eagle* (Spizaetus tyrannus) –4– Regular at Rνo Silanche.  Oddly, it has not been seen elsewhere on our tours. [39:1]

52         Ornate Hawk-Eagle (Spizaetus ornatus) –6– One sighting of a soaring bird by three experienced birders at Rνo Silanche on 27 May 2004.

53         Black-and-chestnut Eagle* (Spizaetus isidori) NT –3– At least one pair is resident in the Tandayapa Valley.  It is frequently seen soaring over Tandayapa on sunny mornings. Adult flight unmistakable. Juvenile compare to juvenile Crested but has darker tail bands and stronger primary bandings. [39:2]

 

FALCONS AND CARACARAS (FALCONIDAE)17

54         Barred Forest-Falcon* (Micrastur ruficollis) –2– Present from lowlands to subtropics.  Frequently heard, especially around Tandayapa, but quite difficult to actually see. Adult with three tail bars, juvenile with three to five. Call barking "ouwwr    ouwwwr", sometimes series of six or eight rising and then falling same notes. Never soars. Sometimes attends ants.

55         Plumbeous Forest-Falcon (Micrastur plumbeus) VU –5– Rare in foothill forest.  All records come from Rνo Silanche and Milpe. Adult with single white tail bar. Its calls are very similar to those of the previous species but more clipped notes and often in groups, very simian sounding. Almost woodpecker like "whoop whoo cheeoww cheww chOOow chOow."  Chocσ Restricted Range Species. [42:2]

56         Collared Forest-Falcon* (Micrastur semitorquatus) –5– Heard a few times, and seen even fewer, in the Tandayapa Valley and around MilpeAdult with three white tail bars. Surprisingly scarce in this area. Call drawn nasal, almost mournful "ooowwWWWww     ooowwWWWwww."

57         Carunculated Caracara (Phalcoboenus carunculatus) –5– Occasional sightings at Yanacocha often the main trail.  Possibly more common on the difficult upper road. Central Andean Pαramo Restricted Range Species. [41:3]

58         Laughing Falcon (Herpetotheres cachinnans) –2– Uncommon, but quite conspicuous and noisy, in lowlands and foothills.

59         American Kestrel (Falco sparverius) –1– Common at Calacalν, the upper Nono road, and along the Yanacocha entrance road.  Occasionally present in Tandayapa village and Mindo.

60         Aplomado Falcon (Falco femoralis) –6– Two sightings near Calacalν. [43:1]

61         Bat Falcon* (Falco rufigularis) –3– Uncommon in the lowlands and foothills.  Most frequent at Rνo Silanche, with a few records from Tandayapa.

62         Peregrine Falcon* (Falco peregrinus) –5– Rare boreal migrant, mainly above 1700m.  A sighting of a juvenile in fresh plumage at Yanacocha in mid-2002 suggests there could be a resident population as well.

 

RAILS, GALLINULES, COOTS (RALLIDAE)

63         White-throated Crake (Laterallus albigularis) –5– Quite common by voice in cow pastures from the lowlands up to Tandayapa village, but few people see it due to its skulking nature. Long strange throaty rattle. [44:7]

64         Virginia Rail (Rallus limicola aequatorialis)  –6– A few sightings from 2008-2009 in a marshy area north of Nono. [45:9]

65         Brown Wood-Rail (Aramides wolfi) EN –6– A few sightings, all of same pair, at Rνo Silanche.  The site is being destroyed and the pair could leave soon.  Has also been heard near the Rνo Silanche. Loud "hick cukkk hick cukkkk hick kukkk." [46:6]

66         Uniform Crake (Amaurolimnas concolor)  –6– One heard near the Brown Wood-Rail stake out at Rνo Silanche. Repetitious frog-like bell whistle. [44:8]

67         Sora (Porzana carolina) –6– Vagrant. One sight record in upper Tandayapa valley. [45:1]

 

SUNBITTERN (EURYPYGIDAE)

68         Sunbittern* (Eurypyga helias) –5– Rare along streams and rivers in the foothills. Solitary and found at the water's edge. Call suggests a Tinamou whistle. Most often seen around Mindo. [48:4]

 

PLOVERS & LAPWINGS (CHARADRIIDAE)

69         Andean Lapwing (Vanellus resplendens) –6– One record of two individuals seen in flight along the entrance road to Yanacocha on 24 Dec 2003. [50:9]

 

SANDPIPERS AND ALLIES (SCOLOPACIDAE)

70         Andean Snipe (Gallinago jamesoni) –6– Heard a few times at Yanacocha, but so far not seen on any of our tours. [52:3]

71         Imperial Snipe (Gallinago imperialis) NT –5– A small population exists in Yanacocha.  Rarely seen during the day on the trails there. There is otherwise little chance of seeing it unless an attempt is made to see their roding displays before dawn or after dusk.

72         Solitary Sandpiper* (Tringa solitaria) –6– Boreal migrant.  One sighting in Mindo in April 2001.

73         Spotted Sandpiper* (Actitis macularia) –3– Boreal migrant.  Regularly seen along streams and rivers from lowlands to subtropics.

74         Baird's Sandpiper (Calidris bairdii) –6– One was at Rνo Silanche on 13 Aug 2001, and one was photographed walking along the road near Bellavista Lodge on 24 Sep 2004.

 

GULLS AND TERNS (LARIDAE)

75         Laughing Gull (Larus atricilla) –6– Vagrant.  One was at the pools in Dos Rνos in Tandayapa village on 2 January 2004.

 

PIGEONS AND DOVES (COLUMBIDAE)28, 29

76         Rock Pigeon* (Columba livia) –1– Common in towns and cities. [63:7]

77         Scaled Pigeon* (Patagioenas speciosa) –6– Inexplicably scarce.  Two sightings at Rνo Silanche, on 13 Sep 2001 and 30 July 2004, and one NW of La Celica. Simple "whoop woooo whoop woooo."

78         Pale-vented Pigeon (Patagioenas cayennensis) –6– One sighting in Rνo Silanche in early 2003, and two birds there on 30 Jul 2004.  Probably spreading due to deforestation.  Quite common a little further southwest of this area.

79         Band-tailed Pigeon* (Patagioenas fasciata) –1– Common in forested areas from about 1300m to 3400m, sometimes in spectacularly huge flocks. [63:7]

80         Ruddy Pigeon* (Patagioenas subvinacea) –1– Common from lowlands to lower subtropics, as along the upper Mindo road, where it occurs together with the next species. "wheew quick WHEW whew."

81         Plumbeous Pigeon* (Patagioenas plumbea) –1– Common in subtropical and lower temperate zones.  Frequently seen around the Lodge itself. "CUPP wuhhohh or CUpp whoaaa whooa."[64:4]

82         Dusky Pigeon (Patagioenas goodsoni) –2– Still fairly common in lowlands and low foothills.  Most often seen at Rνo Silanche, but a few still occur at Four Rivers. Like a Ruddy with totally different song cadence. "Cwooa pup-pup." Chocσ Restricted Range Species. [64:2]

83         Eared Dove (Zenaida auriculata) –1– Common in the highland agricultural areas around Yanacocha and Calacalν, and in Quito itself. Flat "whoop dooo dooOOoo." [64:5]

84         Common Ground-Dove (Columbina passerina) –3– Fairly frequent around Calacalν, but it can be missed.

85         Ecuadorian Ground-Dove (Columbina buckleyi) –5– A few records from Rνo Silanche and Puerto Quito.  Probably regular in Puerto Quito but few tours go there. Sounds like an Alien radar. "Perdoop perdoop perdoop."  Tumbesian Restricted Range Species. [65:5]

86         Blue Ground-Dove (Claravis pretiosa) –5– Scarce at Rνo Silanche and other lowland sites. Straight "Dooop dooop dooop dooop." [65:9]

87         White-tipped Dove (Leptotila verreauxi) –1– Can be found in open areas and light woodland almost throughout the area.  Common around Tandayapa Bird Lodge and the Tandayapa Valley.

88         Pallid Dove (Leptotila pallida) –4– Frequently heard inside lowland and foothill forest, but it can be skulking and difficult to see. [66:2]

89         Sapphire (Indigo-crowned) Quail-Dove (Geotrygon purpurata) –5– Heard once at the end of the Milpe road.  It has been reported from Four Rivers but this has yet to be confirmed. Higher pitched two note call compared to the other Geotrygons here. Almost whistled "whoop woooo."

90         White-throated Quail-Dove* (Geotrygon frenata) –2– Quite common on the trails at Tandayapa but can be shy and difficult to see.  Came to the hide on our visit. Also seen at a few other scattered sites in the area. [67:7]

91         Ruddy Quail-Dove* (Geotrygon montana) –6– Inexplicably very rare. Only one known sighting behind the lodge in 2004. All QDs tend to sound like mournful QDs. Same with this one. Maybe a bit more drawn than the above species. Map is wrong in B of NSA, showing no west Andean occurrences. [67:6]

 

PARROTS AND MACAWS (PSITTACIDAE)30-32

92         Maroon-tailed Conure* (Pyrrhura melanura) –1– Common and frequently seen lowlands to lower subtropics.  Subspecies pacifica considered by some to be a full species, the Chocσ Parakeet. Lacks white around eye completely. Dark beneath long tail and wings like the above Macaw but much smaller. [72:2]

93         Red-masked Conure (Aratinga erythrogenys) NT –4– Small flocks are occasionally seen in flight at Rνo Silanche.  There are a few records from Milpe and Four Rivers from summer 2005. May be spreading to the NW. In flight red mask and red shoulder marks with olive uniform secondaries and primaries from below. Calls monkey like "behhhnn behnrrr" and "beeeh beeehhh" sounding like 'baby baby', as well as a screechier note.  Tumbesian Restricted Range Species. [70:2]

94         Chestnut-fronted Macaw* (Ara severus) –5– Vanishing lowland resident seen mainly in occasional flyovers. Beneath, long dark red tail and secondaries and primaries dark red. High pitched for a Macaw, "chiip chuckk". [69:1]

95         Barred Parakeet* (Bolborhynchus lineola) –3– Small flocks are regularly seen in flight from the upper foothills to the temperate zone, but they are almost never seen perched. Wanders for seeding bamboo. Six inch short tailed, all green in flight. Call "lehrrt weehrrrt". Double noted, mid-pitched, fast. [72:4]

96         Pacific Parrotlet (Forpus coelestis) –3– Found increasingly frequently in cut-over areas, lowlands and foothills.  Spreading due to deforestation. Very short wedge-shaped tails in all Forpus. Dimorphic, females without the striking blue markings of males. Double chip more like a finch than a parrot. Tumbesian Restricted Range Species. [74:5]

97         Blue-fronted (Red-winged) Parrotlet (Touit dilectissimus) –5– Occurs in a wide zone from about 400m to 2400m, but is generally rare, very erratic, and possibly nomadic.  While often heard, the fast-flying flocks are very hard to locate.  Only rarely seen perched. Closely related, if not conspecific with the Central American T. costaricensis. Both with bright yellow wing linings and lateral yellow tail patches. Flight calls "twoeeehh twoeehh" scratchy. [74:6]

98         Rose-faced Parrot (Pyrilia pulchra) –4– Decreasing in the region due to deforestation.  Still regularly found in the more remote areas of the lowlands and foothills, and occasionally still seen at Rνo Silanche, Mangoloma and the end of Milpe roadDark wingtips in flight with some rusty burnish at the base of the tai, shrieking call. Very rapid wingbeats. Call double shrill squeaky shriek, "wheatt wheakk". Chocσ Restricted Range Species. [75:3]

99         Blue-headed Parrot* (Pionus menstruus) –2– Fairly common in the lowlands and lower foothills. Mostly red bill, larger red throat patch in the west Ecuadorian subspecies. Call a  rapid fire shriek "shreeekk shreeek shreek shreek."

100         Red-billed Parrot* (Pionus sordidus) –1– The most common parrot in the subtropics, reaching down locally to the upper foothills.  Common around Tandayapa Bird Lodge. Replaces menstruus at higher elevations. Red orange vent in flight with green tail tips. [76:1]

101         Speckle-faced (White-capped) Parrot (Pionus tumultuosos seniloides) –3– Less common than the previous species, but still seen regularly in the Tandayapa Valley, along the road to Nono, and in Yanacocha. Variably considered conspecific with the Plum-headed Parrot, P. tumultuosus. Orange vent in flight with very dark head that spreads onto chest, mostly above 1500M. [76:3]

102         Bronze-winged Parrot (Pionus chalcopterus) –1– Common throughout the lowlands and foothills. Bright red vent in flight set off from darker belly. White chin strap. [76:4]

103         Red-lored Amazon (Amazona autumnalis) –5– Scarce at Rνo Silanche and NW of La Celica, where small flocks can still occasionally be found. Red loops over the eye in the Ecuadorian subspecies, well separated range from the Panamanian birds.

104         Scaly-naped Amazon* (Amazona mercenaria) –4– Scarce, perhaps seasonal, Tandayapa Valley.  Rarely seen by our groups elsewhere.  Mostly flying high overhead and rarely found perched. Red and yellow visible in tail in flight as opposed to yellow terminal band only in farinosa. [77:3]

105         Mealy Amazon (Amazona farinosa) –5– Rather scarce in lowlands and lower foothills.  Seen by our groups at Rνo Silanche, Four Rivers, NW of La Celica, and beyond the Salto del Tigre. Catch-it, catch-it call still distinct. And flies with shuddering wingtips.

 

CUCKOOS AND ANIS (CUCULIDAE)33, 34

106       Little Cuckoo* (Piaya minuta) –2– Fairly common in thick second growth in lowlands and foothills.  Uncommon to rare in lower subtropics.  A few occur locally even higher. Call bouncy "peeaarrr tewww dittiit-tiii-tti-idoo." [78:4]

107       Squirrel Cuckoo* (Piaya cayana) –1– Common in lowlands and foothills.  Uncommon in subtropics.

108       Dark-billed Cuckoo* (Coccyzus melacoryphus) –6– Two records from Mindo.  One in January 2004, the other on 26 Nov 2004 at Los Colibrνes restaurant. [79:3]

109       Black-billed Cuckoo* (Coccyzus erythropthalmus) –5– A rare boreal migrant, most often seen on northward passage.  Records come from Rνo Silanche, Milpe, and Mindo.

110       Striped Cuckoo (Tapera naevia) –3– Common in open areas in the lowlands and foothills.  Often located by its distinctive two-note whistled song, which is sometimes extended to four or five notes. Piercing and high pitched. [79:9]

111       Banded Ground-Cuckoo (Neomorphus radiolosus) EN –6– Rare and spectacular Chocσ endemic. One seen with ants at Mangaloma Dec 2006. Only a handful of records in Ecuador. Call a drawn low ''whoooooooOOO." Chocσ Restricted Range Species. [80:6]

112       Smooth-billed Ani* (Crotophaga ani) –1– Common throughout the lowlands.

113       Groove-billed Ani (Crotophaga sulcirostris) –6– A few records from along the main highway between Rνo Silanche and Puerto Quito.

 

 

BARN OWLS (TYTONIDAE)

114       Barn Owl* (Tyto alba) –5– Found in agricultural areas at all elevations but quite rare. One regular in Milpe in 2007.

 

TYPICAL OWLS (STRIGIDAE)

115       Colombian Screech-Owl* (Megascops [ingens] colombianus) –4– Rare inside forest in the subtropical zone.  At least one pair lives on the Potoo trail, but they are always difficult to track down. Roosting bird seen at Paz on our visit.  The subspecies colombianus is on the west Andean side and the Rufescent, sometimes considered a distinct species, occurs on the east side. [82:8]

116      Vermiculated Screech-Owl (Megascops guatamalae vermiculatus) –5– Milpe resident, but this area is rarely visited at night. Placed closer to the Vermiculated from the north. [82:6]

117       White-throated Screech-Owl (Megascops albogularis) –5– Seen occasionally at Yanacocha at night. [82:11]

118       Crested Owl (Lophostrix cristata) –5– Resident at Milpe and Rνo Silanche, but these areas are rarely visited at night.

119       Spectacled Owl* (Pulsatrix perspicillata) –6– Widespread in lowlands and foothills. Records along the Milpe road.  In the past heard at Tandayapa Bird Lodge.  Best areas are rarely visited at night. Call the flapping, knocking that speeds and then slows "who who who whowhowho whowho who." [84:5]

120       Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus) –6– Two records from Yanacocha in Pαramo. [84:10]

121       Andean Pygmy-Owl (Glaucidium jardinii) –4– A diurnal owl, above 2000M and seen occasionally at Yanacocha and in the Upper Tandayapa Valley. Call steady whistled "whee whee whee whee...." [83:5]

122       Cloud-forest Pygmy-Owl (Glaucidium nubicola) VU –4– Elusive resident of subtropical zone.  Occasionally seen in Tandayapa Valley, above Mindo, and at Milpe.  Also at Paz on our visit. Most often seen in the day. Clear whistled "twoo twoo twoo TWOO twwoo two two." [83:4]

123       Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia) –5– Seen occasionally near Calacalν and Nono.

124       Mottled Owl* (Ciccaba virgata) –4– Found from the lowlands to the subtropics.  Fairly regular on the trails at Tandayapa Bird Lodge. "cuckoo quo OOO quo OOO quo WOOOP." [84:3]

125       Black-and-white Owl (Ciccaba nigrolineata) –5– Uncommon resident in the lowlands and foothills. Sometimes at the streetlight at the top of Mindo road. Easily heard, but hard to see. Stairstep "whoo whoo whoo whoo whoop whoop WHOOOO."

126       Rufous-banded Owl (Ciccaba albitarsis) –5– Upper subtropical and temperate zones. A few records from the Upper Tandayapa Valley and Yanacocha. All three Ciccaba calls can be recognized as Barred Owl kin. "who whoo? whoo? whoo?      WHOOOO." More pause and stress at the end than BW. Occurs on both slopes. [84:4]

127       Short-eared Owl (Asio flammeus) –5– Occasionally seen during the day, entrance road to Yanacocha.

 

NIGHTJARS & NIGHTHAWKS (CAPRIMULGIDAE)

128       Short-tailed Nighthawk (Lurocalis semitorquatus) –6– One seen at Rνo Silanche at dusk July 2001.

129       Rufous-bellied Nighthawk (Lurocalis rufiventris) –2– Common in the subtropics and the lower temperate zone.  Sometimes seen flying around the lodge at dawn and dusk. Easily whistled "wheeoot wheooot wheooot whoot whoot whoot whoot." Descending slowly.

130       Common Pauraque* (Nyctidromus albicollis) –4– Quite common in the lowlands and foothills, occasionally higher, but you have to be out at night to see it.  Perches in roads where it is found by bright eye shine. [86:9]

131       Chocσ Poorwill (Nyctiphrynus rosenbergi) NT –5– One bird taped in and seen in Rνo Silanche on 5 November 2003.  Probably more common but few people bird this area at night.  Chocσ Restricted Range Species. [87:1]

132       Band-winged Nightjar (Caprimulgus longirostris) –3– Regular at Yanacocha, Puluahua, and in the Tandayapa Valley. Often along roadsides at night. [87:4]

133       Swallow-tailed Nightjar (Uropsalis segmentata) –3– Regularly seen in the Upper Tandayapa Valley and at Yanacocha.  Easier to find in the breeding season when males are singing. Vibrating "whooooooooooo weeeeeeeeeeelllll." [86:11]

134       Lyre-tailed Nightjar (Uropsalis lyra) –2– Resident throughout the subtropical zone.  Males can be seen during the breeding season in road cuts near Tandayapa Bird Lodge. "whoOO paa liverppool liverpool liverpeer perlivvit." [86:10]

 

 

POTOOS (NYCTIBIIDAE)

135       Common Potoo* (Nyctibius griseus) –3– Resident from lowlands to subtropics.  Occasionally can be found on day roosts in the Tandayapa Valley. [86:6]

 

 

OILBIRD (STEATORNITHIDAE)

136       Oilbird* (Steatornis caripensis) –4– Can occasionally be seen flying over Tandayapa Bird Lodge at dusk.  It has been found roosting near the trails on rare occasions. Nesting site near Chontal. [85:2]

 

SWIFTS (APODIDAE)

137       Spot-fronted Swift* (Cypseloides cherriei) DD –5– A few records from the Tandayapa Valley and Rνo Silanche.  Always a difficult species to identify with certainty, unless it is calling. [88:5]

138       Chestnut-collared Swift* (Streptoprocne rutilus) –2– Common in the Tandayapa Valley and other subtropical and foothill sites. [88:3]

139       White-collared Swift* (Streptoprocne zonaris) –1– Common at all elevations. [88:8]

140       Chimney Swift (Chaetura pelagica) –6– Boreal migrant.  Hard to identify in the field, but one definite sighting at the end of the Milpe road on 15 Dec 2002.

141       Band-rumped Swift (Chaetura spinicauda) –5– Rare in foothills.  Occasionally seen at Rνo Silanche and along the far end of the Milpe road. [90:2]

142       Gray-rumped Swift* (Chaetura cinereiventris) –1– Common in lowlands and foothills. [90:1]

143       White-tipped Swift (Aeronautes montivagus) –3– Quite local. Mainly seen in the Tandayapa Valley on sunny mornings. [90:3]

144       Lesser Swallow-tailed Swift (Panyptila cayennensis) –4– Irregular at lowland and foothill sites.

 

HUMMINGBIRDS (TROCHILIDAE)

145       White-necked Jacobin* (Florisuga mellivora) –1– Uncommon in lowlands and foothills, occasionally straying higher.  A regular visitor to feeders in the Mindo area but rare at Tandayapa. [95:9]

146       White-tipped Sicklebill* (Eutoxeres aquila) –4– Rather rare around Heliconia patches in the foothills.  Best site is Four Rivers. [93:6]

147       Bronzy Hermit (Glaucis aenea) –6– Very rare records from Rνo Silanche and NW of La Celica. [91:2]

148       Band-tailed Barbthroat (Threnetes ruckeri) –3– Uncommon in forest understory of lowlands and foothills.  Regular at Rνo Silanche. [91:8]

149       White-whiskered Hermit (Phaethornis yaruqui) –1– Common in lowlands and foothills.  Visits feeders in the Mindo area and at Milpe regularly. [92:1]

150       Tawny-bellied Hermit (Phaethornis syrmatophorus) –2– Inhabits understory of subtropical cloud forest, especially near Heliconia patches.  Fairly common along Tandayapa Bird Lodge trails and occasionally visits the feeders. [92:2]

151       Long-billed (Baron's) Hermit (Phaethornis longirostris baroni) –6– Seen and photographed at Rνo Silanche in June 2005. [91:4]

152       Stripe-throated Hermit (Phaethornis striigularis) –3– Fairly common at Rνo Silanche where there is a lek and other lowland sites but can be skulking and hard to see. [93:4]

153       Green-fronted Lancebill* (Doryfera ludovicae) –4– Generally uncommon in foothills and subtropics, and past frequent visitor at the feeders at Tandayapa Bird Lodge. Rare visitor currently. Occurs on both slopes. [94:3]

154       Wedge-billed Hummingbird* (Schistes geoffroyi) –3– Uncommon from the upper foothills to the subtropics.  There is a lek along the Potoo Trail at Tandayapa Bird Lodge. We did locate a bird there by voice and find it with difficulty. Solitary otherwise. Sexes similar. [109:6]

155       Brown Violet-ear* (Colibri delphinae) –2– Usually visits the feeders at Tandayapa Bird Lodge, but can be erratic.  Occasionally seen elsewhere. Big soft brown appearing hummers with ear and throat flashes. [95:4]

156       Green Violet-ear* (Colibri thalassinus) –2– Normally common in the Tandayapa Valley, but becomes rather scarce from January to March.  A probable altitudinal migrant. Distinctive rapid buzzy rattle like an insect with sharp chips interspersed. [95:1]

157       Sparkling Violet-ear* (Colibri coruscans) –1– Common in agricultural areas and towns in the highlands. The dominant hummer in Quito.  Normally at Tandayapa Bird Lodge feeders but scarce between January and March. Deeply blue tailed and always with a blue belly patch. [95:2]

158       Tooth-billed Hummingbird (Androdon aequatorialis) –6– Two records from the Milpe road and Mangaloma. [94:1]

159       Purple-crowned Fairy (Heliothryx barroti) –2– Fairly common in the lowlands and foothills. Amazing flight and habits similar to the Central American population. [109:2]

160       Green-breasted (Black-throated) Mango (Anthracothorax prevostii iridescens) –5– A few sightings from the lowlands.  Possibly occurs only seasonally, when Inga trees are flowering. [95:8]

161       Gorgeted Sunangel (Heliangelus strophianus) –1– Common in the Upper Tandayapa Valley, especially along the road. Occasionally elsewhere. Occasional Lodge feeder visitor.  Chocσ Restricted Range Species. [106:5]

162       Green Thorntail (Discosura conversii) –1– Fairly common in the lowlands and foothills.  Two records from the feeders at Tandayapa Bird Lodge but regular visitor to the Milpe Sanctuary feeders. [96:7]

163       Speckled Hummingbird* (Adelomyia melanogenys) –1– Abundant in the upper subtropical and lower temperate zones.  Rare at the Tandayapa Bird Lodge feeders, but common in the Upper Valley. Appears masked with its posterior eyeline, buffy streaked throat and belly. [101:3]

164       Violet-tailed Sylph (Aglaiocercus coelestis) –1– Common throughout the subtropics.  Regular and conspicuous visitor to the feeders at Tandayapa Bird Lodge. Female mostly square tailed, blue head cap. Orange and white on female sharply separated. Chocσ Restricted Range Species. [111:3]

165       Ecuadorian Hillstar (Oreotrochilus chimborazo) –6– Seen twice within a few days along the entrance road to Yanacocha in June 2004.  Probably a wanderer from slightly higher elevations, since its preferred food source, the orange flowers of Chuquiragua jussieui, is not found along this road. Like a big White-necked Jacobin with white flashes in a dark tail. Female like a Heliodoxa female. [103:1]

166       Black-tailed Trainbearer (Lesbia victoriae) –2– Quite common in the agricultural highlands between Yanacocha and Quito, at Calacalν, and in Quito itself. Easily seen at the botanical gardens in Quito.  [111:4]

167       Green-tailed Trainbearer (Lesbia nuna) –4– Uncommon in the temperate zone, especially between Nono and Yanacocha.  Sometimes numerous at Yanacocha but does not visit feeders. An erratic dry season visitor to the Tandayapa Valley. [111:5]

168       Purple-backed Thornbill (Ramphomicron microrhynchum) –4– Scarce and erratic at Yanacocha.  Probably an altitudinal migrant. Extremely short beak, tends to perch atop flower umbels. [108:10]

169       Rainbow-bearded Thornbill (Chalcostigma herrani) –3– Scarce but regular at Yanacocha, especially around steep cliff faces. Prefers scrubby areas. Not a recent feeder visitor at Yanacocha.[108:9]

170       Tyrian Metaltail (Metallura tyrianthina) –1– Common in the temperate zone, especially at Yanacocha. Second only to the Buff-winged Starfrontlet at Yanacocha's feeders. Occasionally descends to the Upper Tandayapa Valley. Illustrations in the two books remarkably different. [108:6]

171       Hoary Puffleg (Haplophaedia lugens) NT –5– Very rare inhabitant of subtropical forest.  Best site might be the Mindo Cloudforest Reserve and also Mindo Loma. Two Lodge records.  Chocσ Restricted Range Species. [107:7]

172       Black-breasted Puffleg (Eriocnemis nigrivestis) CR –5– A rare and endangered hummer, possibly seasonal resident at Yanacocha. April to July is peak time when it comes more regularly to the feeders. Central Andean Pαramo Restricted Range Species. [107:1]

173       Sapphire-vented Puffleg (Eriocnemis luciani) –1– Common at Yanacocha.  Has also been seen in Nono and at Puluahua. [107:4]

174       Golden-breasted Puffleg (Eriocnemis mosquera) –1– Less common than the previous species, but usually at the feeders at Yanacocha. Distinctive call note "chtooot chtooot." [107:11]

175       Shining Sunbeam (Aglaeactis cupripennis) –2– Usually at Yanacocha but may be seasonally absent. Not a feeder visitor however. Unmistakable, rainbow-rumped male, orange-green-orange female. [103:8]

176       Brown Inca (Coeligena wilsoni) –1– Fairly common in subtropical forest.  Frequently at the Tandayapa Bird Lodge feeders. Bronzy green with a pink throat in both sexes. White mark above wing angle on neck. Chocσ Restricted Range Species. [104:3]

177       Collared Inca (Coeligena torquata) –1– Common in the upper subtropical and lower temperate zones, occasionally lower.  Sometimes at the Lodge feeders. Unmistakable white-dark green-white, like a tuxedoed hummer. [104:1]

178       Buff-winged Starfrontlet (Coeligena lutetiae) –1– Common and conspicuous at Yanacocha. The dominant feeder bird there. Both sexes with the diagnostic creamy yellow secondary wing mark. Chatter very squeaky. [105:4]

179       Mountain Velvetbreast (Lafresnaya lafresnayi) –3– Regular, Yanacocha but may be seasonally absent. White dark white tail also, black-bellied male, female like a Heliodoxa with a fancy tail and creamier belly. [103:6]

180       Sword-billed Hummingbird (Ensifera ensifera) –3– Now that there are hummer feeders at Yanacocha, this species is seen quite regularly. Bill longer than body. [103:3]

181       Great Sapphirewing (Pterophanes cyanopterus) –1– Common and conspicuous at Yanacocha. Eight inch hummer, intense blue wings. Female creamy orange breasted. [103:5]

182       Buff-tailed Coronet (Boissonneaua flavescens) –1– Common in the Tandayapa Valley, with a few records elsewhere.  Numerous at the Tandayapa Bird Lodge feeders where it was the dominant bird on our visit. Pale tail edges, wing angle mark that is cream orange. Green scaly look otherwise. Constant talker.  [105:7]

183       Velvet-purple Coronet (Boissonneaua jardini) –1– Very local in subtropical zone.  Usually at feeders at Mindo Lindo and Mindo Loma and at Paz de las Aves, rarely at the Tandayapa feedersDark eggplant head and chest. Set off by two white lateral tail patches. Rattly, rapid fire chatter. Chocσ Restricted Range Species. [105:6]

184       Booted Racket-tail* (Racket-tailed Puffleg) (Ocreatus underwoodii) –1– Common from the upper foothills to the subtropics.  Numerous at the Tandayapa Bird Lodge feeders. Present virtually dawn to dusk there. [111:8]

185       White-tailed Hillstar* (Urochroa bougueri) –4– Rare, subtropical zone.  Most often at Mindo Loma. Reliable at El Pahuma orchid reserve. Flashy light dark light tail. Orange moustache in both sexes in the NW. Intense purple throat, dark bellied. Has a white eye mark like a Heliodoxa. Occurs on both slopes. [103:7]

186       Purple-bibbed Whitetip (Urosticte benjamini) –1– Common at the Tandayapa feeders and at Mindo Lindo.  Occasional at Milpe.  Rarely seen away from feeders. Male tail diagnostic with white central dot. Females with fork tail with pale white tips both sides. Both with small white eyemark behind eye. Female almost like a Heliodoxa. Chocσ Restricted Range Species. [107:12]

187       Empress Brilliant (Heliodoxa imperatrix) –1– Regular at feeders at Tandayapa Bird Lodge and in the Mindo area.  Not seen in March at the feeders by us but present at Paz and other feeder areas. Rarely seen away from feeders. A long fork-tailed Heliodoxa. Females with shorter tail and white speckled throat contrasting with greenish belly. Chocσ Restricted Range Species. [102:3]

188       Green-crowned Brilliant (Heliodoxa jacula) –1– Uncommon in the foothills, occasionally higher.  Regular visitor to feeders at Los Colibrνes in Mindo and at Milpe.  Rare visitor to the feeders at Tandayapa Bird Lodge. All dark males in poor light with a tiny triangle of white behind the eye. Reflective green crown in good light and blue throat mark. Shorter female tail than female Empress. Chatter "two two two two twotwotwo two." [102:2]

189       Fawn-breasted Brilliant* (Heliodoxa rubinoides) –1– Very common at the Tandayapa feeders. Sharing dominance with the Buff-tails. Creamy orange breast in both sexes, pink throat mark mostly in male. Also both have white posterior eyemark. [101:6]

190       Giant Hummingbird (Patagona gigas) –4– Uncommon and irregular at Calacalν, sometimes seen in Quito itself and at Yanacocha.  Comes to flowering agaves. Swallow sized, white-rumped. [103:4]

191       Long-billed Starthroat* (Heliomaster longirostris) –4– Mostly in the lowlands near Puerto Quito at flowering Inga trees.  Seasonly into the foothills. Often visits the feeders at Restaurant Mirador Rνo Blanco in Los Bancos. [109:4]

192       Purple-collared Woodstar (Myrtis fanny) –4– Seasonally common in the Calacalν area during the brief period of flowering that follows the winter rains.  Otherwise very rare. Male and female with gap tail centrally. No orange in female tail. [110:1]

193       White-bellied Woodstar* (Chaetocercus mulsant) –3– Often a regular visitor to the feeders at Tandayapa Bird Lodge, but sometimes vanishes for a while.  Rarely seen elsewhere. Female white throated with white eye line. Female tail rounded. [110:5]

194       Little Woodstar (Chaetocercus bombus) VU –5– Very rare.  A few records of females visiting the Lodge feeders, a couple of records from Milpe, and a few sightings from Rνo Silanche. Female with orange throat and belly. Purple-throated Woodstars with orange throats are frequently mistaken for this species. Tail shape in both sexes of PT very different from Little. [110:10]

195       Purple-throated Woodstar (Calliphlox mitchellii) –1– Uncommon in the upper foothills and subtropics, however they readily come to feeders throughout the area. Female and male with fork tail, female only slightly. [110:3]

196       Western (West Andean) Emerald (Chlorostilbon melanorhynchus) –1– Very common at Tandayapa Bird Lodge feeders.  Rarely seen elsewhere in the region. Small glowing green males with dark tails. Females with white bellies and white eye mark. Also forked dark tail. [97:8]

197       Green-crowned Woodnymph (Thalurania fannyi) –1– Common in the lowlands and foothills, occasionally strays higher.  A regular visitor to feeders in the Mindo area and at Milpe, but rare at the Tandayapa feeders. Seen only once all week in March at the lodge feeders. Like a big Violet-belly with a forked tail. Argument ongoing about subspecies divisions. Tanda area males without the purple collar and have full purple belly. Females usually with large white throat oval. [98:4]

198       Amazilia Hummingbird (Amazilia amazilia) –6– Vagrant. One bird visited feeders at Mirador Rνo Blanco for a few days. [100:12]

199       Andean Emerald* (Amazilia franciae) –1– Common in disturbed habitats in foothills and subtropics, occasionally lower.  Numerous at feeders in Mindo and at Tandayapa. Mostly red beak, bluish head and cheeks on male, both sexes with coppery golden rump and tail colors. [100:3]

200       Blue-chested Hummingbird (Amazilia amabilis) –5– Rare in lowlands and lower foothills. Has been seen in Rνo Silanche and in Puerto Quito.  [100:1]

201       Rufous-tailed Hummingbird (Amazilia tzacatl) –1– Abundant in disturbed habitat from the lowlands up to the subtropics.  Numerous at feeders. [100:11]

202       Purple-chested Hummingbird (Amazilia rosenbergi) –2– Regular, foothills.  Rνo Silanche is the most reliable site but seen a few times at Milpe road and in Four Rivers. Feeding on flowers at the lunch area at Rio on our visit. Purple chest mark in male with dark green above and below. Female with scaled green over throat and most of upper chest. Chocσ Restricted Range Species. [100:2]

203       Violet-bellied Hummingbird (Damophila julie) –5– Rare in lowlands and foothills.  Most records are from Rνo Silanche, with one unusual sighting on the Milpe road. Woodnymph color pattern with straight rounded tail. Females with white throat extending down to white vent. [98:3]

 

 

TROGONS AND QUETZALS (TROGONIDAE)47

204       Crested Quetzal* (Pharomachrus antisianus) –4– Scarce but regular in the Tandayapa Valley and near San Tadeo. Can occur with the next species. Occurs on both slopes. [114:3]

205       Golden-headed Quetzal* (Pharomachrus auriceps) –1– Common in the Tandayapa Valley and throughout the subtropics, sometimes down to the upper foothills, as at Milpe. Call "whipp PEWW whipp PEWW whipp PEWW" growing louder as it goes.

206       Blue-tailed (Chocσ) Trogon (Trogon comptus) –3– Fairly common in the foothills.  Regularly seen at Rνo Silanche, Four Rivers, and the Milpe road. Tails of both sexes essentially all dark. Standard measured even "cow cow cow cow cow" and also "choww chuow chuow chow chow putt putt." Chocσ Restricted Range Species. [112:3]

207       Western White-tailed Trogon (Trogon chionurus) –2– Fairly common, lowlands and lower foothills. Very white tailed beneath both sexes.  Rapid falling, almost whinnying "cow cow cowcowcow cow cow" sometimes 15 to 20 notes.

208       Gartered (Northern Violaceous) Trogon (Trogon caligatus) –5– Rare in lowlands and lower foothills. Female black headed. Call "rerrp rerp rerp rerprerp rerp rerp rerp" often extended 10 or 12 notes. [112:6]

209       Black-throated Trogon (Trogon rufus) –4– Uncommon in lowlands and scarce in foothill forests, generally 600m - 800m. Female brown headed. Call "wheel wheww whew whew whew whew." [113:1]

210       Collared Trogon* (Trogon collaris) –3– Uncommon in lowlands and foothills, extending to the subtropics at Mindo Lindo where it occurs together with the next species.  Surprisingly scarce in this area. Very similar call to BT, perhaps more vibrato. First note sometimes doubled. "Wee-peet whirr whirr whirr whirr."

211       Masked Trogon* (Trogon personatus) –1– Common throughout the subtropics, uncommon in the temperate zone. Tail mostly very dark beneath. Call "peeurrr peuuurrr peeeer peeer."

 

 

MOTMOTS (MOMOTIDAE)

212       Broad-billed Motmot (Electron platyrhynchum) –3– Fairly common in lowlands and foothills, occasionally higher, with a handful of sightings from near Tandayapa.

213       Rufous Motmot* (Baryphthengus martii) –2– Fairly common in lowlands and foothills. [116:4]

 

 

KINGFISHERS (ALCEDINIDAE)

214       Ringed Kingfisher (Megaceryle torquata) –4– Fairly common along rivers in lowlands, but only occasionally seen higher.  Infrequently found in the Tandayapa Valley around the fish farms.

215       Green Kingfisher* (Chloroceryle americana) –3– Fairly common along rivers in lowlands, but only occasionally seen higher.  Sometimes seen from the arch bridge at Rνo Silanche. [115:3]

216       American Pygmy Kingfisher (Chloroceryle aenea) –6– A single record from Four Rivers on 18 Dec 2000.

 

 

PUFFBIRDS (BUCCONIDAE)51

217       White-necked (Guianan) Puffbird (Notharchus macrorhynchos) –6– Rare in lowlands and lower foothills, but found even in very disturbed forest. Occasional Rνo Silanche sightings. Froglike slow trill "wheet wheet wheet..." Last three to six seconds. [119:1]

218       Barred Puffbird (Nystalus radiatus) –3– Scarce but regular in the lowlands and foothills. Wolf whistle in two clear parts. Questioning at the end of' "WeerrRRTT   weeeeyouuuu?" [120:7]

219       White-whiskered Puffbird (Malacoptila panamensis) –3– Forest interior of lowlands and lower foothills.  Most often seen at Four Rivers. Call a long drawn "pseeeeeeeeeuut" given at spaced intervals. [121:1]

220       Lanceolated Monklet (Micromonacha lanceolata) –4– Rare in lowlands and foothills.  Most often encountered at Rνo Silanche, but can also be seen at Milpe. Call high pitched rising whinny "wheee wheee whee whee whe whe weee." Speeds at the end.

221       White-faced Nunbird (Hapaloptila castanea) –5– Rare in the Tandayapa Valley.  Occasionally found along the Lodge trails or in the Upper Valley and at Paz de las Aves but months can go by without any sightings. Descending almost Northern Cardinal-like, "WHEET wheet wheet wheet wheet wheet wheeet." [121:5]

 

JACAMARS (GALBULIDAE)

222       Rufous-tailed Jacamar (Galbula ruficauda) –3– Fairly common in lowlands and lower foothills, even in very disturbed areas.  Rνo Silanche is the best place. Squeaky woodpecker-like "wheep wheep wheep wheep wheep."

223       Great Jacamar (Jacamerops aureus) –6– This has never been seen in the area, but has been heard and tape-recorded on two occasions in lowland forest NW of La Celica 2001-2002. [118:7]

 

NEW WORLD BARBETS (CAPITONIDAE)50

224       Orange-fronted Barbet (Capito squamatus) NT –3– Fairly common in lowlands and lower foothills.  Quite frequent at Rνo Silanche. Calls cranky nasal irregular rhythm "annnk annkkk akkkkkk." Also makes a rolling "drr-r-r-r-r-r-r-r-r" like a distant drumming or motor engine. Chocσ Restricted Range Species. [124:5]

225       Five-colored Barbet (Capito quinticolor) NT –6– One seen well with a flock of Lemon-rumped Tanagers at Rνo Silanche in October 2004. Call froggy notes like a Broad-billed Motmot "ouuup ouuup ouuup ouuup ouuup." Chocσ Restricted Range Species. [123:2]

226       Red-headed Barbet* (Eubucco bourcierii) –1– Common from the lowlands through to the lower subtropics. West slope calls like a toad or an owl, drawn "o-o-o-o-o-o-ouuuu" with vibrato. [123:5]

 

TOUCAN-Barbets (SEMNORNITHIDAE)

227       Toucan Barbet (Semnornis ramphastinus) NT –1– Fairly common in the Tandayapa Valley and throughout the subtropics. Comes to feedings at Paz de las Aves. Makes mechanical bill clatter that is choppy and fast like morse code as well as froggy calls like Trumpeter Swan chatter between birds speeding into exited honks that can bounce into a dueting rhythmic. Another great NW Ecuador sound. Chocσ Restricted Range Species. [124:1]

 

TOUCANS (RAMPHASTIDAE)52

228       Crimson-rumped Toucanet (Aulacorhynchus haematopygus) –1– Common from the lower foothills through to the lower subtropics. Call repetitive nasal "purrrt purrt purrt purrt." Often slowing in the long repetitions near the end. [125:5]

229       Plate-billed Mountain-Toucan (Andigena laminirostris) NT –1– Quite common in the Upper Tandayapa Valley.  Also seen occasionally at the Lodge, on the road between Tandayapa and Nono, and there are even two records from Yanacocha. Calls impressive bill rattles with trumpeting notes interspersed. Note Linda Macauley's irritation with them calling over her Powerful Woodpecker calls on the linked recording made at Tandayapa Bird Lodge. Ahhh, science. Chocσ Restricted Range Species. [126:5]

230       Collared (Pale-mandibled) Araηari (Pteroglossus torquatus erythropygius) –1– Common in the lowlands and foothills. Call a sharp squeaky hiccough "chEeerriip, chEeeripp." [127:6]

231       Chocσ Toucan (Ramphastos brevis) –1– Quite common in the lowlands and foothills, occasionally a little higher. Chirp is a "pEEeeerrrt, pEEeeertt." Chocσ Restricted Range Species. [128:2]

232       Chestnut-mandibled Toucan (Ramphastos swainsonii) –3– FC lowlands and foothills. Chirp, mournful and high, "TEEeeeowww tyoo tyooo."[129:3]

 

WOODPECKERS & PICULETS (PICIDAE)48, 53-54

233       Olivaceous Piculet (Picumnus olivaceus) –3– FC, but often missed, lowlands, foothills. [132:7]

234       Black-cheeked Woodpecker (Melanerpes pucherani) –1– Common and conspicuous in lowlands and foothills. Red-bellied like call also, compare with P. rivolii. [133:3]

235       Smoky-brown Woodpecker* (Picoides fumigatus) –2– FC in foothills and subtropics. [134:8]

236       Red-rumped Woodpecker (Veniliornis kirkii) –3– Fairly common in lowlands and lower foothills, occasionally a little higher.  Regular at Rνo Silanche. Sqeakier and higher pitched "Chiieek chiiueek" sometimes double rhythm. Only red rumped Veniliornis in the area.

237       Yellow-vented Woodpecker* (Veniliornis dignus) –5– Rare and local in the Tandayapa Valley. Strong double facial line gives it a mask.

238       Bar-bellied Woodpecker (Veniliornis nigriceps) –4– Scarce but regular at Yanacocha. The Choco Woodpecker, V. chocoensis occurs in the lowlands in Esmereldas area but has not been seen on trips from the Lodge. [134:10]

239       Scarlet-backed Woodpecker (Veniliornis callonotus) –3– Spreading into deforested areas in the lowlands and foothills.  Often seen at Rνo Silanche and near Mindo. Wren-like high pitched "chirrrriiiiipppp" and sharp short similar notes. [134:2]

240       Lita Woodpecker (Piculus litae) –5– Rare in lower foothills.  A few records from Rνo Silanche, Salto del Tigre, and NW of La Celica.  Chocσ Restricted Range Species. [135:2]

241       Crimson-mantled Woodpecker (Colaptes rivolii) –2– Common subtropical, temperate zones. Call a Red-bellied like rattle. Also a loud "qWWEE iiippp, qWEEeee ipppp." [135:6]

242       Golden-olive Woodpecker* (Colaptes rubiginosus) –2– Common lowlands to the lower subtropics. Call a drawn toad-like trill and "squiikkk squiikk" notes. Also a drawn fast rattle.

243       Cinnamon Woodpecker (Celeus loricatus) –4– Scarce in lowlands and foothills. [136:4]

244       Lineated Woodpecker* (Dryocopus lineatus) –2– FC from lowlands to lower subtropics. Call "chiiuuukkk  whiiirrrrrrrrr." [137:1]

245       Guayaquil Woodpecker (Campephilus guayaquilensis) NT –2– Uncommon but conspicuous in lowlands and foothills.  Regular at Rνo Silanche. Drumming and calls closely recall the Pileated Woodpecker of North America. Like the Central American Crimson-crested only brown winged. V meets in the back. [137:2]

246       Powerful Woodpecker (Campephilus pollens) –3– Uncommon in the subtropical and temperate zones.  They have huge territories so can easily be missed.  Probably easiest in the Upper Tandayapa Valley, but sometimes seen along the trails at Tandayapa Bird Lodge. Nesting pair at the Lodge, 2010 and in 2011. Call "hick-keeel hick hick hick hick." [137:4]

247       Crimson-bellied Woodpecker* (Campephilus haematogaster) –5– Rare in lowland and foothill forest.  Almost all records are from November and December. Like a Gray Treefrog rising at the end. [137:6]

 

OVENBIRDS (FURNARIIDAE)56-59

248       Tawny-throated Leaftosser* (Sclerurus mexicanus) –5– Very rare. Oddly, most records come from between 1700m and 1800 m in forest at Tandayapa and Mindo Cloudforest Reserve.  This is generally a lowland and foothill species. Has also been seen at Rνo Silanche. Call down-dropping with a chitter at the end sometimes "tsee tseee tseee tseee tsee see witititititi." [148:1]

249       Scaly-throated Leaftosser (Sclerurus guatemalensis) –5– Has been seen in Four Rivers on two occasions and Mangaloma.  A pair was first seen on 19 Dec 2000, and a single juvenile was seen on 24 Dec 2003.  On neither occasion did the birds call.Call goes up and down "wheet wheet wheeet WHEET WHEET wheet wheet."

250       Stout-billed Cinclodes (Cinclodes excelsior) –6– A Pαramo bird. Seen on several occasions along the Yanacocha entrance track. Call loud "chirruuoop" repeated. Central Andean Pαramo Restricted Range Species. [138:6]

251       Pale-legged (Pacific) Hornero (Furnarius leucopus cinnamomeus) –1– Common from the lowlands through to the lower subtropics. Call "Peet peet peet peet peet pet pooor". [138:5]

252       Azara's Spinetail (Synallaxis azarae) –1– Common in forest edge and second growth in the subtropics, and locally in the temperate zone. "Cheee queeet." Squeaky. [141:2]

253       Slaty Spinetail (Synallaxis brachyura) –1– Common in forest edge and second growth from the lowlands through to the lower subtropics.  Used to occur together with the previous species around Tandayapa. "CHch-ch-chchch-chowwwow-w-w-ww," quick bouncing ball effect, like a scolding wren. [139:1]

254       Rufous Spinetail (Synallaxis unirufa) –2– Fairly common in the Upper Tandayapa Valley. "Queee peeek, quee peek," like a slurred version of the cartoon Roadrunner. [141:5]

255       White-browed Spinetail (Hellmayrea gularis) –3– Fairly common at Yanacocha,  skulking and hard to see. "Chit a chit chit, slower rhythm then a rapid fire trill of chchchchchch." [145:3]

256       Red-faced Spinetail (Cranioleuca erythrops) –1– Common lower foothills to low subtropics at Tandayapa. "Chit chit chit chit chit chit," rapid fire up to 9 or 10 notes, almost warbler-like. [145:1]

257       Streak-backed Canastero (Asthenes wyatti) –5– Present in the dry grass and scrub at Calacalν but very difficult to see. [140:8]

258       Many-striped Canastero (Asthenes flammulata) –6– Pαramo only bird. Seen once along the upper road at Yanacocha.  Probably common here but this area is rarely visited due to the poor state of the road. [140:7]

259       White-chinned Thistletail (Asthenes fuliginosa) –6– Pαramo only bird. In Polylepis. Heard once Yanacocha April 2010.  [142:4]

260       Double-banded Graytail (Xenerpestes minlosi) –5– Rare resident at Rνo Silanche.  Occasionally can be found with mixed canopy flocks. [143:10]

261       Rusty-winged Barbtail* (Premnornis guttuligera) –2– Fairly common inside forest in the subtropical zone.  Often seen along the trails at Tandayapa Bird Lodge. Calls "tseep" like a White-throated Sparrow and bouncy "tititititiititititittiiiti." [142:6]

262       Spotted Barbtail* (Premnoplex brunnescens) –2– Common inhabitant of forest understory in the subtropical zone, but can be skulking.  Often seen along trails at Tandayapa Bird Lodge. Call spinning wheel sharp rattle, descending. [142:8]

263       Pearled Treerunner (Margarornis squamiger) –1– Common  with mixed flocks in the upper subtropical and temperate zones. Buzzy "tzssssttt" calls mainly. [143:4]

264       Streaked Tuftedcheek (Pseudocolaptes boissonneautii) –2– Common in forest in the upper subtropical and temperate zones. Call usually just sharp "chinnks." Makes some wren-like trills as well. [143:7]

265       Pacific (Buffy) Tuftedcheek (Pseudocolaptes lawrencii johnsoni) –4– Rare in foothills and lower subtropics.  All sightings that we know of come from Mashpi, Milpe and near the Mindo Cloudforest Reserve. Call also a sharp "chiiippp" less nasal. Trill is spinning wheel, slower than Streaked. [143:8]

266       Scaly-throated Foliage-gleaner (Anabacerthia variegaticeps) –1– Common with flocks in the foothills and lower subtropics.  Occasional along trails at Tandayapa Bird Lodge. [146:9]

267       Lineated Foliage-gleaner* (Syndactyla subalaris) –2– Common in the upper foothills and subtropics, often with mixed flocks. Bouncy "chuck chuck chuck titititititiuhh." [146:6]

268       Striped (Western) Woodhaunter (Hyloctistes subulatus assimilis) –4– Uncommon inside forest in lowlands and foothills.  Generally shy and hard to see. [146:1]

269       Buff-fronted Foliage-gleaner* (Philydor rufum) –1– Fairly common throughout the foothills and lower subtropics.  Easy at Milpe. Call bouncing rising woodpecker-like "Chee cheee cheee cheee chee cheee cheett cheeet."[146:10]

270       Flammulated Treehunter (Thripadectes flammulatus) –5– A rare resident of the Upper Tandayapa Valley and above Mindo Cloudforest Reserve. [147:4]

271       Striped Treehunter (Thripadectes holostictus) –2– Quite common in the Upper Tandayapa Valley.  Also sometimes present on the Toucan Trail at Tandayapa Bird Lodge. Squeaky wren bubbling 3 to 5 notes. [147:5]

272       Streak-capped Treehunter (Thripadectes virgaticeps) –2– Generally uncommon in the subtropical zone, but regular around Tandayapa Bird Lodge. Call "check check check CHECK check," slightly bouncy. Not as sharp as Uniform call. [147:2]

273       Uniform Treehunter (Thripadectes ignobilis) –5– An inexplicably scarce bird of foothill and subtropical forest.  Most often seen at Mashpi. Past records are from the Mindo Cloudforest Reserve and Milpe.  It was present on the Antpitta Trail at Tandayapa Bird Lodge in 2000 but seems to have vanished from there. Call squeaky rising and falling laugh, "cheek cheek cheek  CHEEK cheek chek chek."  Chocσ Restricted Range Species. [147:1]

274       Ruddy Foliage-gleaner* (Automolus rubiginosus) –3– Fairly common in dense understory in the lowlands and foothills.  Can be very difficult to see well. [147:10]

275       Streaked Xenops* (Xenops rutilans) –3– Uncommon in lowlands and foothills. Unlike elsewhere in its range, it does not seem to occur in the subtropical zone in this area. [144:1]

276       Plain Xenops* (Xenops minutus) –2– Fairly common in the lowlands and foothills. [144:3]

 

WOODCREEPERS (DENDROCOLAPTIDAE) 55

277       Tyrannine Woodcreeper (Dendrocincla tyrannina) –4– Uncommon and possibly decreasing in the subtropics.  Formerly regular in the Tandayapa Valley and near Mindo Cloudforest Reserve. Long rising vibrato, high pitched, fall off at end. Initially like a fast Pileated Woodpecker. [149:1]

278       Plain-brown Woodcreeper* (Dendrocincla fuliginosa) –2– Fairly common in lowlands and foothills. "Cheet chett chett chett..." slowly loses energy and speed but extended. [149:5]

279       Wedge-billed Woodcreeper* (Glyphorynchus spirurus) –2– Fairly common in lowlands and foothills.

280       Strong-billed Woodcreeper* (Xiphocolaptes promeropirhynchus) –3– Uncommon throughout the subtropical zone.  Often seen along the trails at Tandayapa Bird Lodge. Laughing "Weee-pit, wee-pitt, wee-pitt, weee-pitt, whipp." [150:5]

281       Northern Barred-Woodcreeper (Dendrocolaptes sanctithomae) –5– Rare in lowlands and lower foothills.  Not seen regularly at any site. [150:4]

282       Black-striped Woodcreeper (Xiphorhynchus lachrymosus) –3– Uncommon with mixed flocks at Rνo Silanche and other nearby sites. "Weert weert weert.." drawn out and slowing 10 to 20 beats. [153:6]

283       Spotted Woodcreeper (Xiphorhynchus erythropygius) –2– Common from the lowlands through to the lower subtropics. Call series of descending mournful whistles or horse whinnies, growing lower pitched and shorter. [152:8]

284       Streak-headed Woodcreeper (Lepidocolaptes souleyetii) –2– Common in secondary forest in the lowlands. Call "CHEEeee pee-te-t--te-t-t-t--t-t-t-t-tttee" second portion sliding downward. [152:4]

285       Montane Woodcreeper (Lepidocolaptes lacrymiger) –1– Common in the subtropical zone, especially in the Tandayapa Valley. Wheezy indistinct chatter, like a kinglet. Song wheezy "t-tt-tt--t-tt--twee tweee two two twee twee." Telegraphic rhythm. [152:5]

286       Red-billed Scythebill* (Campylorhamphus trochilirostris) –4– Prefers secondary habitats in the lowlands. Two records from Rνo Silanche. Call "wheep wheep wheep wheep WHEEP WHEEP weep." Faster and more uniform than C. pusillus.

287       Brown-billed Scythebill* (Campylorhamphus pusillus) –4– Rare in the foothills.  Four Rivers is the best site, but has also been increasingly seen at the Milpe bird sanctuary. Call descending "weet weet weet weet weet  weet    weet." Slows at the end. Compare Greater Scythebill, C. pucherani, [153:1] which is known from Pichincha but has not been seen on bird trips from the lodge. VR in the area. Call distinct from the above, nasal "ee eee eee eenh ennh eeenhh, uhh-wheeettt." Both Brown-bill and Greater occur on both sides of the Andes. [153:5]

 

TYPICAL ANTBIRDS (THAMNOPHILIDAE)60-63

288       Fasciated Antshrike* (Cymbilaimus lineatus) –6– Rare.  A few records from Rνo Silanche. Easily imitated, almost pure whistled call "peeurr peer peer peer peer peer, 6 to 8 notes." [154:1]

289       Great Antshrike (Taraba major) –5– Uncommon in lowlands and lower foothills. Records in Rνo Silanche. Call bouncing ball with more hollow notes and higher than Western Slaty, sometimes two-speeded or sustained. Final nasal noise drawn and like fabric being torn or a growling throat clear, laughable. Often drops the nasal finish. [154:4]

290       Uniform Antshrike (Thamnophilus unicolor) –3– Fairly common in the Lower Tandayapa Valley, including Tandayapa Bird Lodge. Call "chuck peerrrrrrrrrrrr" or just long "purrrrrrrrrrr." Song "unnhh unhh unnh uhh uhh uhh," rising up in pitch and nasal. [157:4]

291       Western Slaty-Antshrike (Thamnophilus atrinucha) –2– Fairly common in the lowlands and lower foothills, especially at Rνo Silanche. Song bouncing ball and nasal squeak at the end, sometimes just single jeerrrrk or jerk-prrrrrrrrr, very similar to Great. [158:2]

292       Russet Antshrike* (Thamnistes anabatinus) –3– Uncommon inside forest in lowlands and foothills, often with mixed flocks. Call very different almost whistled, falling "tseeeuut tseeuut tseeutt tseeutt tseeuttt." [158:7]

293       Plain Antvireo* (Dysithamnus mentalis) –4– Occasional on Lodge trails, and from the hide. [159:3]

294       Spot-crowned Antvireo (Dysithamnus puncticeps) –4– Scarce inside forest in lowlands and lower foothills.  Regularly seen at Four Rivers, occasionally in Rνo Silanche.

295       Checker-throated Antwren (Epinecrophylla fulviventris) –2– FC inside forest in the lowlands and lower foothills. Often at Rνo Silanche trails. "Makes sharp seet seet seet seet seet, slightly descending. [162:4]

296       Moustached (Griscom's) Antwren (Myrmotherula ignota) –4– Scarce with canopy flocks at Rνo Silanche. Whistled bouncing ball call, similar cadence to Western Slaty.

297       Pacific Antwren (Myrmotherula pacifica) –2– Common in second growth lowlands, foothills. Higher and faster call than Griscom's with speeding towards the end. Sweeter whistle like a warbler or a goldfinch. [160:7]

298       White-flanked Antwren* (Myrmotherula axillaris) –3– FC inside forest, lowlands, lower foothills. [161:4]

299       Slaty Antwren* (Myrmotherula schisticolor) –2– Fairly common inside forest in the foothills and lower subtropics.  Regularly seen in mixed understory flocks at Tandayapa Bird Lodge. Catbird like "meee eewww."[162:2]

300       Dot-winged Antwren* (Microrhopias quixensis) –2– Fairly common inside forest in lowlands and foothills.  Often found in and around guadua bamboo. "Cheww-cheewwt or cheww cheww chewwwt." [164:1]

301       Long-tailed Antbird* (Drymophila caudata) –2– Locally fairly common in the subtropics, usually associated with chusquea bamboo. Call "cheet-cheeet-bzzzzzet bzzzzzet." Very buzzy on the final notes. Occurs on both slopes. [163:1]

302       Rufous-rumped Antwren* (Terenura callinota) –5– Rare in this area, with all sightings from the Milpe area. We had four birds at once at Milpe displaying rump and interacting in 2011.

303       Dusky Antbird (Cercomacra tyrannina) –3– Fairly common, second growth, lowlands, foothills. "Wheeat teea tee teee teee teee teee tea." Bouncy at the end. [165:4]

304       White-backed Fire-eye* (Pyriglena leuconota) –6– Inexplicably rare.  Two records from Rνo Silanche and another from Four Rivers.  Perhaps overlooked, song rather similar to Immaculate Antbird's but faster and lower. Individual Weeets also less harsh and high. Occurs on both slopes. [165:9]

305       Immaculate Antbird (Myrmeciza immaculata) –2– Forest understory in foothills and subtropics.  Frequently seen from the hide at Tandayapa Bird Lodge. "Weeelt weelt weeet  weeet  weet  weet", slowing toward the end. [169:8]

306       Chestnut-backed Antbird (Myrmeciza exsul) –2– FC but very shy inside forest, lowlands and foothills. Very whistled call "WHeeet peeer or Cheerr peeer peeeer" like an oriole. [168:5]

307       Esmeraldas Antbird (Myrmeciza nigricauda) –3– Uncommon and local in the foothills.  Regular at Four Rivers and Milpe. Buzzy and high pitched. Pumps tail downward. Call "See see   see see seee   tSSEE  tSSEEp," rising up and inquiring for last notes. Also "Tsee TSEEP   see see seee" with enquiring notes at the front of the call. [169:2]

308       Stub-tailed Antbird (Myrmeciza berlepschi) –4– A few pairs reside in second growth in Rνo Silanche.  So far has not been found elsewhere in the region. Pure whistled nine to ten notes, rising at the end, also questioning. Chocσ Restricted Range Species. [168:4]

309       Bicolored Antbird (Gymnopithys leucaspis) –4– Uncommon and local in lowlands and lower foothills.  Almost all of our sightings are from Four Rivers. [170:6]

310       Ocellated Antbird (Phaenostictus mcleannani) –6– Recently only at Mangaloma. Seen once in July 2000 in Rνo Silanche in a forest that has now been cut.  Probably still occurs in the area but so far has not been relocated. [170:7]

 

ANTTHRUSHES (FORMICARIIDAE)

311       Black-headed Antthrush (Formicarius nigricapillus) –3– Common on the forest floor in lowlands and foothills up to about 1000m. Call a drawn series 15 to 30 twooo twoo two two two twotwotwos, speeding and rising toward the end.

312       Rufous-breasted Antthrush* (Formicarius rufipectus) –3– Frequently heard in the upper foothills and subtropics.  The trails at Tandayapa Bird Lodge actually give you a decent chance to see this difficult species. Call piping flutey double whistle "toooot tooot." [172:1]

 

ANTPITTAS (GRALLARIIDAE)64, 65

313       Undulated Antpitta (Grallaria squamigera) –5– Frequently heard at Yanacocha from November to March but only rarely seen. Call similar to Giant only more musical and hollow, same duration. [174:4]

314       Giant Antpitta (Grallaria gigantea) VU –2– The Paz de las Aves bird. Seen on almost every visit there except in breeding season. Very rare and local in the Tandayapa Valley and above Mindo. One appeared at the Lodge area in 2010. Call a owlish low pitched trill, rising slightly, lasting 5 to 7 seconds. Restricted Range Species. [174:2]

315       Moustached Antpitta (Grallaria alleni) EN –3– Least reliable of the Paz de las Aves visitors. Locally fairly common, by voice, in the Tandayapa Valley and above Mindo.  Rarely visits the hide at Tandayapa Bird Lodge. Call more whistled and higher than Scaled, faster paced. ''Wertts'' instead of whoos. [176:1]

316       Scaled Antpitta* (Grallaria guatimalensis) –4– Uncommon from foothills to lower subtropics.  Very hard to see.  Sometimes visits the hide at Tandayapa Bird Lodge. Call is an even more owlish "whoo whooo whooo whoo WHOO whoo whoo who," rising slightly. [175:1]

317       Plain-backed Antpitta* (Grallaria haplonota) –6– Heard on a few occasions Milpe road. Call slower than above two species. Twoo two twos. Slowing at end. Occurs on both slopes. [175:3]

318       Chestnut-crowned Antpitta (Grallaria ruficapilla) –4– Common, by voice, in the Upper Tandayapa Valley and between Tandayapa and Nono.  Like most antpittas it is usually very hard to see. Call distinct, "Qweee qwee pooo qwee-yuuu," pooo is lowest note. One of my favorite recordings in the giant Macauley collection. [178:1]

319       Chestnut-naped Antpitta (Grallaria nuchalis) –6– Often heard Yanacocha but never been seen. Also distinctive, froggy ''coo tweee twee tteee teee teeee tititititititlli."

320       Yellow-breasted Antpitta (Grallaria flavotincta) –2– Appears most days at Paz de las Aves. Locally fairly common Mindo Cloudforest Reserve, Mindo Loma, and above Mindo.  Very hard to see. Call three or four note whistled "Pweee pwee peeuu." Easily imitated. Chocσ Restricted Range Species. [176:5]

321       Rufous Antpitta (Grallaria rufula) –3– Common at Yanacocha and a little easier to see than most antpittas. Call piping, "peeer peer peer peer peer peer peer peer," slowing at the end and quieting. [177:2]

322       Tawny Antpitta (Grallaria quitensis) –2– Common in Yanacocha, especially along the entrance track.  The easiest antpitta to see. Call simple "Tweeiikk tuuu," and "Tweeek tuuu-tuu," flutey whistle. [177:3]

323       Ochre-breasted Antpitta* (Grallaricula flavirostris) –3– Uncommon and local in foothills and subtropics.  Regularly seen along the trails at Tandayapa Bird Lodge. Calls a simple "Weeoot or a weeuut", followed by bouncy trill "wee-ee-ee-eee-eee-eee-it." [179:8]

324       Rusty-breasted Antpitta (Grallaricula ferrugineipectus) –4– Recently discovered in the Puluahua Reserve north of Calacalν in 2003, representing a major range extension. Quite common there in stands of bamboo. Birds here and in SW Ecuador and NW Peru differ slightly from those in Colombia and Bolivia, but the variation appears to be clinal.  This species is not included in The Birds of Ecuador. Call a rapid rising "Weiit wit wit witt witt WITT wiit wee uuu." [179:1]

 

TAPACULOS (RHINOCRYPTIDAE)66

325       Ash-colored Tapaculo (Myornis senilis) –4– Fairly common at Yanacocha, but like all tapaculos in Ecuador, it is skulking and hard to see. Call a rapid fire trill like a wren, sometimes very sustained and descending. Mixed with Brown Thrasher smacking check swellp, wellp or sweeeett. [181:4]

326       Blackish (Unicolored) Tapaculo (Scytalopus (latrans) unicolor) –3– FC by voice at Yanacocha and around Nono. Few upper valley records. Calls a "Pweerrt, or Pweerrt-pweerrt or even tripled with notes like a water faucet drip and a whinny chechechechecheeechechit." [181:1]

327       Nariρo Tapaculo (Scytalopus vicinior) –3– Fairly common in a narrow elevational belt of about 1600m to 2000m.  Can be found on the Tandayapa Bird Lodge trails but always tough to see. Also Paz de las Aves and old Nono-Mindo road. Very froggy trill, scraping piiuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu." Drawn sometimes for 4 or 5 seconds or longer. Chocσ Restricted Range Species. Chocσ Tapaculo, Scytalopus chocoensis is also known from Esmereldas area. Fairly new species very close to Nariρo in appearance. Call is a monotonous "peeht  peeht peeht peeht peeht..." [183:4]

328       Spillmann's Tapaculo (Scytalopus spillmanni) –3– Common in the Upper Tandayapa Valley, rare at Yanacocha. Call also a trill, but slower and more toothcomb like, wren-scold sounding. [183:8]

329       Ocellated Tapaculo (Acropternis orthonyx) –3– FC Upper Tandayapa Valley and at Yanacocha in bamboo patches. Call "Keeeuww, keeuww, keeuww keeeuww or Peeeeerrrrrr" with singles or three or four beats.

 

CRESCENTCHESTS (MELANOPAREIIDAE)

330       Elegant Crescentchest (Melanopareia elegans) –6– One bird was defending a territory in a palm heat plantation along the entrance road to Rνo Silanche in 2007-2008, but has not returned recently. [181:8]

 

TYRANT FLYCATCHERS (TYRANNIDAE)67-75

331       Brown-capped Tyrannulet (Ornithion brunneicapillus) –3– Uncommon in lowlands and lower foothills.  Regular at Rνo Silanche. [188:3]

332       Southern Beardless-Tyrannulet (Camptostoma obsoletum) –2– Common from the lowlands through to the lower subtropics. [188:1]

333       White-banded Tyrannulet (Mecocerculus stictopterus) –1– Common in the temperate zone, often with mixed flocks.

334       White-tailed Tyrannulet (Mecocerculus poecilocercus) –1– Common in the subtropical zone.  Regular with mixed flocks in the Tandayapa Valley. [191:3]

335       White-throated Tyrannulet (Mecocerculus leucophrys) –1– Common in the temperate zone, often with mixed flocks. Over 2800 feet only. Subspecies in Ecuador with rufous wing bands and very dark rufous brown back. [189:7]

336       Rufous-winged Tyrannulet (Mecocerculus calopterus) –3– Erratic in foothills and subtropics.  Sometimes can be quite common, other times it is not recorded for months.  It may vacate the region during very wet periods, but this is still uncertain. [191:1]

337       Tufted Tit-Tyrant (Anairetes parulus) –3– Fairly common in scrubby areas in the temperate zone.  Usually easy in Calacalν. Explosive "chuu-WIEETT" singly or repeated. Also has a rattly trill. [192:4]

338       Agile Tit-Tyrant (Anairetes agilis) –5– At least one pair is present at Yanacocha near the start of the main trail.  They probably live in the bamboo patch that can be seen down the steep slope. Calls sharp dry "siiik" notes, occasional trills that are drier than Tufted. Some chickadee like chatter and some junco notes.

339       Yellow Tyrannulet* (Capsiempis flaveola) –2– Locally fairly common from lowlands to lower subtropics.  Often found around stands of guadua bamboo.

340       Yellow-crowned Tyrannulet* (Tyrannulus elatus) –3– Fairly common by voice in secondary habitats in the lowlands and foothills. [188:5]

341       Gray Elaenia (Myiopagis caniceps) –3– Uncommon in lowlands and foothills.  A regular follower of mixed canopy flocks in Rνo Silanche. Note Gray Elaenia has a green-backed form. Always has some wingbars. Call very different "whee whee wee wee wee wee." Descending. [188:7]

342       Greenish Elaenia (Myiopagis viridicata) –5– Rare and perhaps seasonal.  Records come from Rνo Silanche and the Milpe road.  Was seen frequently at Milpe in 2005. No wingbars. Call whistled high "chee rippp" or "SEeee ippp". [188:8]

343       Yellow-bellied Elaenia (Elaenia flavogaster) –2– Fairly common in more open habitats in lowlands and foothills, a little higher along the Mindo road. [189:9]

344       Lesser Elaenia (Elaenia chiriquensis) –6– This species is very difficult to identify due to similarity with the other Elaenias, especially Sierran Elaenia.  It is likely overlooked, but certainly not common.  We include it here based on one well-studied bird in Mindo. Not recorded in Ecuador and only once in nearby Columbia but Venezuelan birds with two noted "wheeep wrrrr" that is distinct from Sierran. Also has a short, punchy "wEEeeerrr" that is closer to Sierran calls. Unfortunately the birds calling in Ecuador may be the very different subspecies brachyptera which occurs only in the area and may be a true species. [190:2]

345       White-crested Elaenia* (Elaenia albiceps) –2– Fairly common in secondary scrub in the temperate zone.  Also found in the subtropics but perhaps only seasonally. Dark faced. Calls several but "brrrrra" buzzy note common. As well as a "wheeuurrr" [190:1]

346       Sierran Elaenia* (Elaenia pallatangae) –3– Sometimes fairly common in the subtropics.  Possibly seasonal but local movements not understood. Pale yellow faced. Call "whee-yrr" often distinctly two-noted. Excited call "whhip eet whip eet" and single "wheerrr". Generally wheezier than Lesser and more double noted. [190:7]

347       Torrent Tyrannulet* (Serpophaga cinerea) –3– Fairly common along streams in the upper foothills and subtropics. [191:5]

348       Streak-necked Flycatcher* (Mionectes striaticollis) –1– Common in subtropical zone and lower temperate zone.  May occur lower but uncertain due to confusion with Olive-striped. See Xeno recordings here. Lek calls more squeaky and two noted "Peee iittt peeee Peeee itt peeee". Apparently rarely vocalizes away from lek and sways back and forth exposing orange beak gape. [184:1]

349       Olive-striped Flycatcher* (Mionectes olivaceus) –2– Fairly common in lowlands and foothills.  May occur higher but this is uncertain due to confusion with the previous species. Leking species and the very high pitched call is absolutely unusual for a flycatcher. "Pseeee pseee pseee psseee pseee pseee." Both recordings by Budney he had absolutely no idea what it was at the time he recorded. [184:2]

350       Ochre-bellied Flycatcher (Mionectes oleagineus) –5– Rare in lowlands and lower foothills. A totally different sound for this lowland lek bird, evenly spaced "Quicck quick quick quick cheww cheww chewww chewww." Chew notes much lower like it is shifting gears. This bird was common at La Selva, Costa Rica and was often hard to see or locate when calling. [184:3]

351       Slaty-capped Flycatcher* (Leptopogon superciliaris) –1– Common in lowlands and foothills.  Locally also found in the lower subtropics. Call squeaky nasal "tsee trrrr    tseee trrrr." [184:7]

352       Marble-faced Bristle-Tyrant* (Pogonotriccus ophthalmicus) –3– Uncommon and local in the subtropical zone. Call spinning "psee ee ee ee eee ee ee ee ee ip ip" sometimes going up and then down. [193:5]

353       Sooty-headed Tyrannulet* (Phyllomyias griseiceps) –2– Fairly common in lowlands and foothills. Map in B of NSA is incorrect. Virtually no wingbars which is diagnostic.  "Whip, whip di rip, whip di rip, tip it," with distinctive cadence. Also "wheeep" and some Kingbird like series. [187:4]

354       Black-capped Tyrannulet (Phyllomyias nigrocapillus) –4– Uncommon.  Mostly in the temperate zone, but occasionally seen in the Upper Tandayapa Valley. (P. zeledoni, the White-fronted Tyrannulet, also occurs in western Andean slopes, though not listed for TL. Split from Rough-legged Tyrannulet, P. burmeisteri, which is shown on page 187 as well.) For the Black-capped: "Tzeee tsee tsee tsee tsee, very high and buzzy."[187:3]

355       Ashy-headed Tyrannulet* (Phyllomyias cinereiceps) –3– Scarce and easily overlooked in the upper foothills and subtropics. "Fast wheeee te te te te te." [187:7]

356       Tawny-rumped Tyrannulet (Phyllomyias uropygialis) –4– Uncommon.  Mostly in the temperate zone, but occasionally seen in the upper Tandayapa Valley. "Pseeeet pseet too, high pitched." [187:6]

357       Chocσ (Golden-faced) Tyrannulet (Zimmerius [chrysops] albigularis) –1– Common in the lowlands and foothills.  Locally occurs in the subtropics along the Mindo road. Recently split subspecies. Separate from the southern Ecuador birds and east slope birds. Call "tree   tree   tree   tree   ee eee."[187:12]

358       Ornate Flycatcher* (Myiotriccus ornatus) –1– FC foothills, uncommon, local in the subtropics. Sharp simple "pyeeep" or "wheeep". [196:1]

359       Bronze-olive Pygmy-Tyrant* (Pseudotriccus pelzelni) –4– Uncommon inside forest in upper foothills and subtropics.  Present on trails at Tandayapa and Milpe but very unobtrusive.  Listen for its bill-snapping. Interspersed with very high pitched "wee weee weee we." Occurs on both slopes. [184:9]

360       Rufous-headed Pygmy-Tyrant (Pseudotriccus ruficeps) –3– Uncommon and difficult to see in the Upper Tandayapa Valley. Slower bill snapping with shorter bursts. Interspersed with drawn "perrrrweeeeeeeee." [184:8]

361       Black-capped Pygmy-Tyrant (Myiornis atricapillus) –2– Fairly common, but easily overlooked, in lowlands and lower foothills.  Reasonably easy to find at Rνo Silanche. [192:1]

362       Scale-crested Pygmy-Tyrant* (Lophotriccus pileatus) –2– Common, but often hard to see, from the lowlands through to the lower subtropics. Bubbly cricket-like clicking noise. [192:8]

363       Rufous-crowned Tody-Flycatcher (Poecilotriccus ruficeps) –4– Uncommon, very local in subtropics. Bubbling wren-like ticking calls. Often paired. [185:14]

364       Black-headed Tody-Flycatcher (Todirostrum nigriceps) –2– Fairly common but easily overlooked in forest canopy of lowlands and lower foothills. [185:7]

365       Common Tody-Flycatcher* (Todirostrum cinereum) –1– Common in secondary habitats in the lowlands and foothills, occasionally a little higher.

366       Pacific Flatbill (Rhynchocyclus pacificus) –4– Scarce in foothills, normally below the range of the next species.  Four Rivers is the most reliable site. Buzzy "Tchwweerpp" followed by descending and also buzzy, scratchy "tzzee dee dee dee dee de de." [194:10]

367       Fulvous-breasted Flatbill* (Rhynchocyclus fulvipectus) –6– Very rare.  Two sightings along the Milpe road of birds following mixed flocks. "TReeeee-diipp." [194:9]

368       Yellow-margined Flatbill (Flycatcher) (Tolmomyias assimilis flavotectus) –3– Uncommon in lowlands and lower foothills.  Regularly seen with flocks in Rνo Silanche. (Species divided from assimilis.) [195:6]

369       White-throated Spadebill* (Platyrinchus mystaceus) –4– Uncommon in lowlands and foothills. Recent lower valley sighting.

370       Golden-crowned Spadebill (Platyrinchus coronatus) –5– Few records.  Most are from Four Rivers, but there is also one from the end of the Milpe road. [195:7]

371       Ruddy-tailed Flycatcher (Terenotriccus erythrurus) –5– Fairly rare inside forest lowlands and lower foothills. [196:5]

372       Cinnamon Flycatcher* (Pyrrhomyias cinnamomea) –2– Uncommon in the subtropical and lower temperate zones. Calls "pzzzeettt-t-t-t-t" like a high raspberry and also some chips. [196:9]

373       Black-tailed Flycatcher* (Myiobius atricaudus) –6– One seen at Rνo Silanche 8 Jun 2004. [196:6]

374       Sulphur-rumped Flycatcher (Myiobius sulphureipygius) –3– Uncommon inside forest in lowlands and lower foothills.

375       Tawny-breasted Flycatcher* (Myiobius villosus) –4– Uncommon inside foothill forest.  Best sites are Four Rivers and Milpe. [196:7]

376       Flavescent Flycatcher (Myiophobus flavicans) –2– Common in subtropical forest.

377       Orange-crested Flycatcher* (Myiophobus phoenicomitra) –5– Rare in foothill forests.  All records so far are from the Milpe road. Recorded calls much more vibrant than flavicans. Almost no visible wigbars. "Tseee tee suu tseee tee tseee teee." Occurs on both slopes. [197:7]

378       Bran-colored Flycatcher (Myiophobus fasciatus) –2– Fairly common in secondary growth from the lowlands to the lower subtropics. Prefers borders and open savannah. Calls "WEEeee pee pee pee pee pee peeee" spins down slightly, also "wheeet" and "whee-youuu". [197:1]

379       Handsome Flycatcher (Nephelomyias pulcher) –6– Very rare in mixed flocks on either side of the Tandayapa Pass.  Only two sightings. [197:5]

380       Gray-breasted Flycatcher (Lathrotriccus griseipectus) –6– Two records: one from Rνo Silanche in 2002 and another from near Chontal in 2008. [198:3]

381       Western Wood-Pewee* (Contopus sordidulus) –2– A common boreal migrant in the lowlands and foothills, rarely higher.  Eastern Wood-Pewee, C. virens, has still not been reliably recorded on our tours but is known from PichinchaDuring boreal migrant times the Eastern is also found at higher elevations but is mostly a lowland bird. Knowledge of the calls is essential to make a positive identification. Western call is shorter and buzzy "bzzzewwwttt." Chatter more buzzy also. Compared to longer slurred true "peee-wweeeeeeeee" of Eastern.

382       Smoke-colored Pewee (Contopus fumigatus) –1– Common from the upper foothills to the lower temperate zone. Calls "WHeeeeeuurr" and "pit pit pit pit pit pit" series. [199:5]

383       Olive-sided Flycatcher* (Contopus cooperi) NT –4– Uncommon boreal migrant, mostly in foothills and lower subtropics.

384       Acadian Flycatcher* (Empidonax virescens) –2– Fairly common boreal migrant in lowlands and foothills.

385       Black Phoebe* (Sayornis nigricans) –1– Common near rivers and streams, foothills and subtropics. Says "fee bee" much curter and plainer than the Eastern. Also "pzzztt" and more slurred 'phoebe' call. [200:8]

386       Vermilion Flycatcher (Pyrocephalus rubinus) –5– Uncommon in dry valleys north of Quito. A female seen by us in 2011 at the Quito Botanical gardens.

387       White-browed Ground-Tyrant (Muscisaxicola albilora) –6– A rare austral migrant to the temperate zone.  One seen on 17 Jul 2004 along the entrance road to Yanacocha, and a flock of over 50 birds was present in the fields below Yanacocha in July and August 2005. [202:1]

388       Spot-billed Ground-Tyrant (Muscisaxicola maculirostris) –3– Present at Calacalν but inconspicuous unless doing display flights. [202:4]

389       White-tailed Shrike-Tyrant (Agriornis andicola) VU –4– A few individuals inhabit arid scrub near Calacalν. [201:4]

390       Streak-throated Bush-Tyrant (Myiotheretes striaticollis) –4– Uncommon in the temperate zone.

391       Smoky Bush-Tyrant (Myiotheretes fumigatus) –3– Fairly common at Yanacocha, uncommon elsewhere in the temperate zone. [201:2]

392       Masked Water-Tyrant (Fluvicola nengeta) –1– Common in lowlands and foothills, especially at Rνo Silanche and the entrance to the Milpe road. [202:7]

393       Brown-backed Chat-Tyrant (Ochthoeca fumicolor) –2– Regularly seen in Yanacocha. [200:3]

394       Rufous-breasted Chat-Tyrant (Ochthoeca rufipectoralis) –2– Uncommon in the temperate zone.  Most often seen at Yanacocha, but can also be found around Nono. [200:6]

395       Slaty-backed Chat-Tyrant (Ochthoeca cinnamomeiventris) –3– Very local in the subtropics and the lower temperate zone, usually near streams.  Often seen between Tandayapa and Nono. [200:5]

396       Crowned Chat-Tyrant (Ochthoeca frontalis) –3– Fairly common but inconspicuous at Yanacocha.

397       Yellow-bellied Chat-Tyrant (Ochthoeca diadema) –2– FC but easily overlooked in the upper subtropics and lower temperate zone.  Regular along the roads in the Upper Tandayapa Valley. [200:1]

398       Long-tailed Tyrant* (Colonia colonus) –3– Uncommon in lowlands and foothills.  Usually found perched conspicuously on dead snags. [203:3]

399       Bright-rumped Attila* (Attila spadiceus) –4– Rare foothills.  Most records at Rνo Silanche. [204:1]

400       (Western) Sirystes (Sirystes albogriseus) –6– Rare.  A few sightings from Rνo Silanche and from the end of the Milpe road, and one from Los Colibrνes in Mindo. Nods head, raises crest. [205:9]

401       Rufous Mourner (Rhytipterna holerythra) –5– Rare in forest subcanopy in lowlands and foothills.  Often heard in Four Rivers, but hard to see well. Whistled "putt deeuuuwww WHEE whooo."[204:8]

402       Dusky-capped Flycatcher* (Myiarchus tuberculifer) –2– Fairly common from the lowlands to the lower temperate zone. "Peeerrr whieett and rolling pert-rt-rt-rt-t-t-t."[205:5]

403       Boat-billed Flycatcher* (Megarynchus pitangua) –3– Uncommon in lowlands and foothills. [208:1]

404       Social Flycatcher (Myiozetetes similis) –2– Fairly common in lowlands and foothills.  In this area it tends to be outnumbered by the following species.

405       Rusty-margined Flycatcher (Myiozetetes cayanensis) –1– Common in the lowlands and foothills.  Uncommon to rare in the lower subtropics. Downsliding sad, "Wheeeeeeeeeee-eet wheet wheet"

406       Gray-capped Flycatcher* (Myiozetetes granadensis) –2– Uncommon in lowlands and foothills.  Its distinctive calls often give away its presence.

407       White-ringed Flycatcher (Conopias albovittata) –4– Rare in canopy of lowland and low foothill forest.  A few records from Rνo Silanche and from NW of La Celica. Call "whe-e-e ddiit-t-tt diittt dit dit." [209:2]

408       Lemon-browed Flycatcher* (Conopias cinchoneti) –6– Probably a vagrant from the north. One photographed along the Pacto-Guayllabillas road on 24 Jan 2010, only the second record in the area. [209:5]

409       Streaked Flycatcher* (Myiodynastes maculatus) –2– Fairly common in lowlands and foothills.  Seems to be seasonal but further study is needed. [207:6]

410       Golden-crowned Flycatcher* (Myiodynastes chrysocephalus) –1– Fairly common and conspicuous in the upper foothills and subtropics.  Easy to see around Tandayapa Bird Lodge. Calls squeaky "whEEE ipp whEEE ippp" and a very Phoebe sounding "WHEE beee dooo."

411       Piratic Flycatcher* (Legatus leucophaius) –3– Uncommon in lowlands and foothills.  Seems to be seasonal but further study is needed. [207:3]

412       Tropical Kingbird* (Tyrannus melancholicus) –1– Common from lowlands to subtropics.

413       Snowy-throated Kingbird (Tyrannus niveigularis) –3– Uncommon and probably seasonal (June to December) in the lowlands and foothills. Calls "quiip quuippp" and a high kingbird series "pip pip pip pip skeeek iii deee". [206:6]

 

COTINGAS (COTINGIDAE)

414       Barred Fruiteater (Pipreola arcuata) –3– Several pairs at the trails at Yanacocha. Call a 2 to 3 second drawn whistle "Tseeeeeeeeeeh." [210:3]

415       Green-and-black Fruiteater (Pipreola riefferii) –1– Fairly common in the upper subtropical and lower temperate zones.  Easily seen in the Upper Tandayapa Valley. Elusive slow moving. Several calls, including "tt-t-t-t--t-t-t-t-t-t-t" extended stuttered chip-whistle, slowing at end or ending with a "tweeuuuww." [211:1]

416       Orange-breasted Fruiteater (Pipreola jucunda) –3– FC and local.  Has been seen near Mindo Loma and San Tadeo.  Paz de las Aves and Mashpi are the most reliable sites. One record, Upper Tandayapa Valley. Call a shorter higher "pseeeeeeιt" accented at the end. Chocσ Restricted Range Species. [211:4]

417       Scaled Fruiteater* (Ampelioides tschudii) –3– Uncommon and local in the Tandayapa Valley and above Mindo.  Sometimes found along the trails at Tandayapa Bird Lodge. [210:5]

418       Red-crested Cotinga (Ampelion rubrocristata) –3– Uncommon in the temperate zone.  A few, mostly juveniles, occasionally wander down to the Upper Tandayapa Valley. [212:3]

419       Andean Cock-of-the-rock* (Rupicola peruviana) –2– Locally common in the subtropics.  Frequently seen near Tandayapa including the trails and along the road to Nono. Unearthly "Ouuu-weeeee." [216:4]

420       Olivaceous Piha (Snowornis cryptolophus) –3– Locally fairly common in the subtropical zone.  Regularly found along the trails at Tandayapa Bird Lodge. Single recording anywhere linked here is of a rattle. Likely other unknown calls but obviously a very quiet bird. East slope S. subalaris makes a two tone whistle. [214:2]

421       Purple-throated Fruitcrow (Querula purpurata) –3– Fairly common lowlands, lower foothills. Calls "puuUUu uuu puUUrrrr puuuu puuurrr." [215:3]

422       Long-wattled Umbrellabird (Cephalopterus penduliger) VU –5– Very rare and local in foothills and lower subtropics. Sporadic Milpe sightings and Mangaloma. Noise like someone blowing leisurely into a horn. Chocσ Restricted Range Species. [216:2]

423        Black-tipped Cotinga (Carpodectes hopkei) –4– Rare and local in the lowlands and foothills.  Occasionally seen in Rνo Silanche but more regular in remoter areas. [213:6]

 

MANAKINS (PIPRIDAE)78

424       Golden-winged Manakin* (Masius chrysopterus) –2– Fairly common upper foothills and subtropics.  Also in Four Rivers.  Usually seen at leks along the trails at Tandayapa Bird Lodge and Milpe. Call buzzy burp "annnnkkk." [218:4]

425       Club-winged Manakin (Machaeropterus deliciosus) –2– FC but local in the upper foothills and lower subtropics.  Seasonally active leks at Milpe and Mindo Lindo. Call amazing "tonnnk tonnkk BRRRRRR."  Chocσ Restricted Range Species. [220:1]

426       Blue-crowned Manakin (Lepidothrix coronata) –5– A few records from Rνo Silanche. [218:1]

427       White-bearded Manakin (Manacus manacus) –1– Common in lowlands and lower foothills, occasionally higher.  Leks can be located by the very loud firecracker-like snapping noises made by the displaying males. [219:1]

428       Green Manakin* (Xenopipo holochlora) –5– An incredibly inconspicuous bird found inside mature forest in lowlands and foothills.  All of our records come from Four Rivers. [221:2]

429       Red-capped Manakin (Pipra mentalis) –5– Now rather rare in lowlands and lower foothills.  Still regularly seen NW of La Celica. [217:2]

 

TITYRAS AND ALLIES (TITYRIDAE)

430       Masked Tityra* (Tityra semifasciata) –1– Fairly common in lowlands and foothills, locally into the lower subtropics. [224:2]

431       Black-crowned Tityra* (Tityra inquisitor) –3– Uncommon in lowlands and foothills.

432       Thrush-like Schiffornis* (Schiffornis turdina) –5– Rare inside mature forest in lowlands and lower foothills.  Most common at Mangaloma. A few records from Rνo Silanche, Four Rivers, Milpe, and the forests NW of La Celica. Whistled "tweeeEEE eEEattt teet" and "tweee tweee EEeee tyou tuuu." [223:8]

433       Barred Becard* (Pachyramphus versicolor) –2– Fairly common in the subtropics and the lower temperate zone. Call a nice "treee dee dEEee deee dee dee dee". [222:6]

434       Slaty Becard (Pachyramphus spodiurus) EN –6– A male was seen at Rνo Silanche on 8 Oct 2004 and one was photographed there on 13 Aug 2005. Call "WhEEEE tee teee tee teee" sometimes with an ending trill like a sparrow.  Tumbesian Restricted Range Species. [223:4]

435       Cinnamon Becard (Pachyramphus cinnamomeus) –1– Common in the lowlands and foothills. [222:3]

436       White-winged Becard* (Pachyramphus polychopterus) –2– Uncommon and very local, but a pair usually circulates with a small flock around the Lodge.  Almost all the other records are from the Lower Tandayapa Valley and near Mindo. Chortle whistle "Chturrr tchurr chur chur two weedle." [222:5]

437       Black-and-white Becard* (Pachyramphus albogriseus) –3– Uncommon in foothills and subtropics. Call "tuuuu tuuu dwit tuu tuu" and combinations, often with pauses between two or three phrases. [223:1]

438       One-colored Becard (Pachyramphus homochrous) –2– Fairly common from the lowlands to lower subtropics.  Probably seasonal, and mostly recorded from June to November. Call very different squeaky mix with whistles like a parakeet, often ends with "Seeee you." [222:7]

 

VIREOS and ALLIES (VIREONIDAE)

439       Choco Vireo (Vireo masteri) –5– Described in 1996 was originally found in SW Columbia, has now been found in NW Ecuador in 2006. All the recordings on Xeno are from Ecuador including Pichincha and are from 2010. Has a downward spinning call with a flourish, like a slow Parula "wee did did did did did did not WEEP." [226:6]

440       Red-eyed Vireo* (Vireo olivaceus) –2– Common but seasonal from lowlands to subtropics.  The majority of birds represent race griseobarbatus, which is a breeding resident in western Ecuador, but seems to undertake local movements that are still not understood.  The boreal migrant nominate race probably occurs too but it is not well-documented. Not a single recording from Ecuador out of 100 on Macauley. On Xeno there is a single recording from this definite subspecies. Sounds slightly different from the boreal migrant with some note doubling.

441       Brown-capped Vireo* (Vireo leucophrys) –1– Common with mixed flocks in the subtropics and lower temperate zone. Call more like a warbler, lazy conversational "wee which a wee which a wheee," and variations. West Andean subspecies with especially rich brown cap compared to Central American form. [225:5]

442       Lesser Greenlet (Hylophilus decurtatus) –1– Common, noisy in mixed flocks, lowlands and foothills. [226:6]

443       Tawny-crowned Greenlet (Hylophilus ochraceiceps) –5– Rare in the lowlands and foothills.  A few records from Rνo Silanche and the Milpe road. [227:11]

444       Slaty-capped Shrike-Vireo* (Vireolanius leucotis) –4– Frequently heard but not often seen in the lowlands and foothills. Repetitious whistled "PeeeEEeep   peeeEEep  peeeEEep." Like a slow oven alarm. [225:4]

445       Black-billed Peppershrike* (Cyclarhis nigrirostris) –4– Scarce along Milpe road and above Mindo. Mashpi now the best site. Whistled warbled "people people people look UP." Sometimes just two peoples. Or "wee people people people dooo." Apparently relentlessly vocal. [225:2]

 

CROWS, JAYS and MAGPIES (CORVIDAE)

446       Turquoise Jay (Cyanolyca turcosa) –2– FC and noisy in upper subtropical, temperate forest. Impressive assortment of sounds but commonest is a drawn sneeze "chchhwwwweeeeee." Also a hollow whistle. [228:2]

447       Beautiful Jay (Cyanolyca pulchra) NT –3– Uncommon and very local in the subtropical zone.  All sightings come from the Tandayapa Valley, the first few km of the road between Tandayapa and Nono, and near Mindo Cloudforest Reserve. Call frequently a two note Star Wars gun "CHeeckkk checkkk." Also "cheee CHeeckk." Or a single loud "chaackkk" that sounds like a slap. Of the two jays in the area, the Beautiful has the less beautiful call. Chocσ Restricted Range Species. [228:1]

 

SWALLOWS AND MARTINS (HIRUNDINIDAE)

448       Blue-and-white Swallow* (Pygochelidon cyanoleuca) –1– Common from the lowlands to the lower temperate zone.

449       Brown-bellied Swallow (Orochelidon murina) –2– Usually common at Yanacocha.

450       White-thighed Swallow* (Atticora tibialis) –1– Fairly common from the lowlands to the lower subtropics. [229:10]

451       Southern Rough-winged Swallow* (Stelgidopteryx ruficollis) –1– Common from the lowlands to the lower subtropics at Tandayapa.

452       Gray-breasted Martin* (Progne chalybea) –5– Rare in lowlands and foothills.

453       Barn Swallow* (Hirundo rustica) –5– A rare boreal migrant with scattered records throughout.

 

WRENS (TROGLODYTIDAE)80

454       Band-backed Wren (Campylorhynchus zonatus) –3– Uncommon in lowlands and foothills. [232:2]

455       Gray-mantled Wren* (Odontorchilus branickii) –5– Rare resident in foothill forest.  Records from Rνo Silanche, beyond the Salto del Tigre, and at the end of the Milpe road. Cocks and twitches tail. Forages along branches in epiphytes, mosses, lichens. Call uniform flat "swe-swe-swe-swe-swe-swe-swe." [233:1]

456       Rufous Wren (Cinnycerthia unirufa) –2– Fairly common at Yanacocha. Favors dense cloud forest, and bamboo. Often in flocks. Does duet, more repetitive song. [233:7]

457       Sepia-brown (Sharpe’s) Wren (Cinnycerthia olivascens) –2– Fairly common with mixed flocks in the Upper Tandayapa Valley. Much more varied and complex song than Rufous. [233:6]

458       Plain-tailed Wren (Thryothorus euophrys) –3– Common by voice in upper subtropics and temperate zone, though often hard to see.  Restricted to chusquea bamboo, never found away from it. Rolling duets ''wee bottle wee bought it, wee bottle wee wobble with it.'' [237:3]

459       Whiskered Wren (Thryothorus mystacalis) –3– Very local in this region.  Most often found in roadside scrub near Tandayapa village.  Also recorded in the Caonν valley near Puerto Quito and in Puluahua. Liquid song ''her weee, don't QUOTE meeee''. [235:5]

460       Bay Wren (Thryothorus nigricapillus) –2– Common by voice in lowlands and foothills, though often hard to see. Makes chuuurrrrrss and frog like noises. Very vocal. Very loud. Three note rolls incorporated, "guud a diingg, guud a dinggg." [235:2]

461       Stripe-throated Wren (Thryothorus leucopogon) –4– Rare in lowlands and foothills.  A few pairs can be found in forest patches at Rνo Silanche. Whistles clearly for ''tea...tea...tea...tea.'' [237:2]

462       House Wren* (Troglodytes aedon) –1– Common in open habitats nearly throughout.

463       Mountain Wren* (Troglodytes solstitialis) –3– Surprisingly scarce and local from the upper foothills to the temperate zone. Rapid wren phrasing timed as "sweet with a sweet and a sweet" or sometimes "sweet and a sweet or a tea swizzle see", sometimes followed by a buzzy finish note.

464       Sedge Wren (Cistothorus platensis) –3– Uncommon in Yanacocha, easiest along the entrance road in scrubby areas.

465       Gray-breasted Wood-Wren* (Henicorhina leucophrys) –1– Common inside forest from the upper foothills to the temperate zone.  Also occurs in Four Rivers.  Vocal differences between foothill and subtropical populations suggest that the taxonomy of this species probably merits further study. Call of the GB "tree deep, per de dee, tree dee dee dee." "Per tree deep tree purrr whip, pee tip trip." Plus variations. There are still no records substantiated by tape recordings of White-breasted Wood-Wren on our tours. [233:3]

466       Southern (Scaly-breasted) Nightingale-Wren (Microcerculus marginatus) –3– Fairly common by voice inside lowland and foothill forest.  Four Rivers is usually the best place to look for it. Famous call is the whistler-wandering-the-scale-while-drinking-call. Sometimes out of tune and seemingly lost in thought. Unforgettable. [236:1]

 

DIPPERS (CINCLIDAE)

467       White-capped Dipper* (Cinclus leucocephalus) –2– Fairly common along streams and rivers. Road to Nono often the best spot.

 

 

GNATCATCHERS & GNATWRENS (POLIOPTILIDAE)

468       Tawny-faced Gnatwren (Microbates cinereiventris) –3– Fairly common inside forest in lower foothills.  Usually fairly easy to see at Four Rivers and Rνo Silanche. [239:5]

469       Tropical Gnatcatcher (Polioptila plumbea) –2– Fairly common in open habitats in the lowlands and foothills, occasionally or locally higher. [239:1]

470       Slate-throated Gnatcatcher (Polioptila schistaceigula) –3– Uncommon and local in the lower foothills.  Almost all records are from Rνo Silanche, where it is still seen frequently with mixed flocks.

 

 

THRUSHES (TURDIDAE)

471       Andean Solitaire* (Myadestes ralloides) –3– Common by voice throughout the subtropics, but can be hard to spot.  Uncommon in the upper foothills. [241:3]

472       Slaty-backed Nightingale-Thrush (Catharus fuscater) –3– Heard regularly but very hard to see in the subtropical and lower temperate zones.  Rarely visits the hide at Tandayapa Bird Lodge.

473       Spotted Nightingale-Thrush* (Catharus dryas) –4– Uncommon and elusive inside foothill forest, occasionally to lower subtropics. [242:4]

474       Swainson's Thrush* (Catharus ustulatus) –1– A common boreal migrant nearly throughout.

475       Black Solitaire (Entomodestes coracinus) –4– Rare in subtropical forest. Seen fairly regularly on the Mashpi road.  Years ago it may have been much more common in this region. Seen every few years near the lodge. Chocσ Restricted Range Species. [241:4]

476       Rufous-brown Solitaire (Cichlopsis leucogenys) –5– Very rare. Only known from Mashpi road where there were several sightings in late 2010. [241:6]

477       Pale-eyed Thrush* (Turdus leucops) –5– Rare in the subtropics.  Our sightings come from the Tandayapa Valley and the upper part of the Mindo road.  Pair seems to be resident around Tandayapa. Amazingly variable phrasing with scratchy notes, whistled notes and ethereal notes all in the mix. [241:5]

478       Pale-vented Thrush (Turdus obsoletus) –4– Rare resident in foothills.  All of our records come from the Milpe road. [246:6]

479       Ecuadorian Thrush (Turdus maculirostris) –1– Common in more open areas in lowlands and foothills, now spreading to the lower subtropics, as at Tandayapa village. Very similar phrasing to our Robin. Tumbesian Restricted Range Species. [246:3]

480       Great Thrush (Turdus fuscater) –1– Abundant in the agricultural highlands around Quito, Yanacocha, and Nono. One of the five commonest birds in Quito itself. Occurs locally down to the upper subtropics. Pace and phrasing of a Turdus but notes thrown in for true thrushes, much more musical intermittently. [244:3]

481       Chiguanco Thrush (Turdus chiguanco) –6– One sighting from the old racetrack near Calicali in 2006. [244:2]

482       Glossy-black Thrush* (Turdus serranus) –2– Fairly common in forest in the subtropical and temperate zones.  Most often seen in the Tandayapa Valley. Downsliding phrases almost vireo-like in pacing. Repetitive. [244:1]

483       Dagua Thrush (Turdus daguae) –5– Rare in lowlands and foothills.  Known from forest NW of La Celica and at Los Colibrνes in Mindo, where sometimes found singing November to January. [246:2]

 

MOCKINGBIRDS & THRASHERS (MIMIDAE)

484       Tropical Mockingbird (Mimus gilvus) –6– A young bird seen along the Nono road near Tandayapa village on 14 Jul 2005. [247:1]

 

 

PIPITS AND WAGTAILS (MOTACILLIDAE)

485       Pαramo Pipit (Anthus bogotensis) –4– Occasionally at Yanacocha, along the entrance track. [240:4]

 

NEW WORLD WARBLERS (PARULIDAE)

486       Tennessee Warbler* (Vermivora peregrina) –6– Very rare.  A few records during the boreal winter.

487       Tropical Parula* (Parula pitiayumi) –1– Common from the lowlands through to the subtropics.

488       Blackpoll Warbler* (Dendroica striata) –6– One record from Milpe in August 2004.

489       Blackburnian Warbler* (Dendroica fusca) –1– Common boreal migrant, mostly in the upper foothills and subtropics.

490       Black-throated Green Warbler (Dendroica virens) –6– One sighting March 2011 in the valley on the lower road.

491       Chestnut-sided Warbler (Dendroica pensylvanica) –6– One record at Rνo Silanche in November 2002.  Seen by a large group of birders.

492       Black-and-white Warbler* (Mniotilta varia) –5– Rare boreal migrant from lowlands to subtropics.

493       American Redstart* (Setophaga ruticilla) –4– Rare boreal migrant, mainly in lowlands and foothills, but occasionally higher.

494       Olive-crowned Yellowthroat (Geothlypis semiflava) –1– Common in pastures from the lowlands to subtropics. [291:8]

495       Canada Warbler* (Wilsonia canadensis) –5– Rare boreal migrant, mainly in the subtropics.

496       Slate-throated Redstart* (Myioborus miniatus) –1– Common from the upper foothills to the subtropics.

497       Spectacled Redstart (Myioborus melanocephalus) –1– Common from the upper subtropics to the temperate zone. [292:8]

498       Black-crested Warbler (Basileuterus nigrocristatus) –1– Common in the upper subtropical and temperate zones. ''Sweet sweet sweet sweet chewchewchewchew chew chew chew." [294:1]

499       Chocσ (Golden-bellied) Warbler (Basileuterus chlorophrys) –2– Fairly common in foothill forest.  Milpe trails and Four Rivers are the best sites. "Tee tee tee teee titttttzzzzzzzz." [293:11]

500       Three-striped Warbler* (Basileuterus tristriatus) –1– Common in the subtropics, especially around Tandayapa. [294:6]

501       Russet-crowned Warbler (Basileuterus coronatus) –1– Common in the subtropics and the lower temperate zone. Whistled musical call 8 or 9 notes sometimes given call and response from male and female, one going up and one going down. A very bouncy and happy song. [293:2]

502       Buff-rumped Warbler* (Phaeothlypis fulvicauda) –2– Fairly common along streams and rivers in the lowlands and foothills. [294:7]

 

BANANAQUIT (COEREBIDAE)

503       Bananaquit* (Coereba flaveola) –1– Common from the lowlands through to the lower subtropics.

 

TANAGERS AND ALLIES (THRAUPIDAE)

504       Superciliaried Hemispingus (Hemispingus superciliaris) –1– Common in temperate forest, mainly at Yanacocha. Notes like halting stuttering Junco chatter ending with Junco hiccoughs. [250:2]

505       Western Hemispingus (Hemispingus ochraceus) –2– Locally fairly common in subtropical forest.  Does not favor bamboo locations. The best place to see it is along roads in the Upper Tandayapa Valley. More musical chatter also building and halting, higher pitched than Superciliated. Related Black-eared, H. melanotis is now separate and east slope only. [250:7]

506       Black-capped Hemispingus (Hemispingus atropileus) –6– First sighting ever in Sept 2010 in Upper Tandayapa valley. [250:6]

507       Rufous-chested Tanager (Thlypopsis ornata) –3– This species undertakes local movements that are not understood.  Sometimes it is common in the subtropical and temperate zones.  Other times it goes unrecorded for months at a time. [251:2]

508       Cinereous Conebill (Conirostrum cinereum) –2– Common in forest and scrub in the temperate zone. Ventures into fields and gardens. [268:8]

509       Blue-backed Conebill (Conirostrum sitticolor) –2– Common with mixed flocks in temperate forest. Forages at all levels.

510       Capped Conebill (Conirostrum albifrons) –2– Fairly common in the upper subtropical and lower temperate zones.  Frequently seen with mixed flocks in the Upper Tandayapa Valley. Subspecies in Ecuador often without white cap. [268:1]

511       Giant Conebill (Oreomanes fraseri) NT –6– Rare.  Recorded at Yanacocha on 26 Jan 2003 and 28 Jul 2004.  Probably regular in the Polylepis woodland at the end of the upper road at Yanacocha but this area is difficult to access. [268:7]

512       Plushcap (Catamblyrhynchus diadema) –3– Scarce and skulking in the upper subtropical and lower temperate zones.  Usually associated with Chusquea bamboo. [265:7]

513       Dusky Bush-Tanager (Chlorospingus semifuscus) –1– Common in the upper foothills and subtropics.  Abundant in the Upper Tandayapa Valley. Call squeaky notes with intermittent rattled chatter.  Chocσ Restricted Range Species. [249:4]

514       Yellow-green Bush-Tanager (Chlorospingus flavovirens) VU –5– A new population of this very rare and local species was recently discovered at the end of the Milpe road.  This is a target area for a new reserve, but inflated land prices are making it difficult to buy a significant amount of forest, and most of the accessible area has already been cut down for naranjilla orchards.  Chocσ Restricted Range Species. [249:8]

515       Yellow-throated Bush-Tanager* (Chlorospingus flavigularis) –1– Common in the foothills. Sharper popping notes than Dusky, less squeaky. [249:7]

516       Guira Tanager (Hemithraupis guira) –2– Fairly common in lowlands and foothills. Forages in big single species flocks and mixes. [251:5]

517       Scarlet-and-white Tanager (Chrysothlypis salmoni) –5– Rare.  Most records come from Rνo Silanche where it is still seen occasionally with mixed flocks.  Has also been seen in Four Rivers. Female green backed and very white breasted. Chocσ Restricted Range Species. [251:7]

518       Dusky-faced Tanager (Mitrospingus cassinii) –2– Fairly common in forest understory on lowlands and lower foothills.  Regularly seen with mixed flocks in Rνo Silanche. [252:6]

519       Scarlet-browed Tanager (Heterospingus xanthopygius) –3– Uncommon in forest canopy in lowlands and lower foothills.  Regularly seen with mixed flocks in Rνo Silanche. [253:6]

520       White-lined Tanager* (Tachyphonus rufus) –2– Uncommon in lightly-vegetated areas from the lowlands to the subtropics. [254:3]

521       White-shouldered Tanager* (Tachyphonus luctuosus) –1– Common in lowlands and foothills.

522       Tawny-crested Tanager (Tachyphonus delatrii) –2– Fairly common in forested lowlands and lower foothills.  Regularly seen with mixed flocks in Rνo Silanche. [254:7]

523       Flame-rumped (Lemon-rumped) Tanager (Ramphocelus flammigerus icteronotus) –1– Abundant in open habitats and secondary forest from the lowlands through to the lower subtropics. [256:2]

524       Blue-gray Tanager* (Thraupis episcopus) –1– Common from the lowlands to the lower subtropics.

525       Palm Tanager* (Thraupis palmarum) –1– Common in lowlands and foothills, rarely strays to lower subtropics.

526       Blue-capped Tanager (Thraupis cyanocephala) –1– Common with mixed flocks throughout the subtropics and the lower temperate zone. [258:2]

527       Blue-and-yellow Tanager (Thraupis bonariensis) –4– Uncommon and unpredictable in drier highland areas such as Calacalν, between Quito and Yanacocha, and in Quito. [258:6]

528       Golden-chested Tanager (Bangsia rothschildi) –6– Known in this region only from beyond the Salto del Tigre.  A very long trip from Tandayapa, mostly on a bad road where a 4WD vehicle is needed.  Chocσ Restricted Range Species. [257:6]

529       Moss-backed Tanager (Bangsia edwardsi) –2– Very local, formerly common and conspicuous along the Milpe road but absent there now. Mashpi and upper parts of Pacto-Guayllabillas road are best.  A Chocσ Restricted Range Species. [257:5]

530       Hooded Mountain-Tanager (Buthraupis montana) –2– Fairly common in the temperate zone, occasionally descending to the Upper Tandayapa Valley. [259:1]

531       Black-chested Mountain-Tanager (Buthraupis eximia) –3– Scarce but regularly seen at Yanacocha.

532       Scarlet-bellied Mountain-Tanager (Anisognathus igniventris) –1– Common, temperate zone. [259:5]

533       Lacrimose Mountain-Tanager (Anisognathus lacrymosus) –6– One individual seen well by nine birders at Yanacocha on 9 Aug 2003.  There are several old specimens from the west slope of the Andes in N Ecuador, but due to a lack of recent sightings, The Birds of Ecuador considers them as probably mislabelled.  However it seems that this species does occur here, albeit in very small numbers.

534       Blue-winged Mountain-Tanager (Anisognathus somptuosus) –1– Common throughout the subtropics. [259:9]

535       Black-chinned Mountain-Tanager (Anisognathus notabilis) –3– Uncommon and very local.  More reliable areas are the upper part of the Mindo road, Mindo Loma, and near the Mindo Cloudforest Reserve.  Chocσ Restricted Range Species. [259:7]

536       Grass-green Tanager (Chlorornis riefferii) –1– Most often seen with mixed flocks in the Upper Tandayapa Valley, with a few sightings from Yanacocha. [248:7]

537       Buff-breasted Mountain-Tanager (Dubusia taeniata) –4– Uncommon in temperate forest. Vocal but unobtrusive at Yanacocha and along the Nono road and the upper area of Pululahua. [260:5]

538       Golden-crowned Tanager (Iridosornis rufivertex) –4– Scarce and erratic in the temperate zone.  Yanacocha main trail is your best bet. [260:2]

539       Fawn-breasted Tanager (Pipraeidea melanonota) –2– Fairly common in the upper foothills and subtropics. [260:4]

540       Glistening-green Tanager (Chlorochrysa phoenicotis) –3– Uncommon and local in the upper foothills and lower subtropics.  The two most reliable sites are the Milpe road and the upper part of the Mindo road.  Chocσ Restricted Range Species. [261:1]

541       Gray-and-gold Tanager (Tangara palmeri) –3– Uncommon in the lowlands and foothills.  Frequently seen in Rνo Silanche. [261:7]

542       Blue-whiskered Tanager (Tangara johannae) NT –4– Rare with mixed flocks lowlands and lower foothills.  Still seen occasionally in Rνo Silanche and NW of La Celica.  Chocσ Restricted Range Species.

543       Emerald Tanager (Tangara florida) –3– Uncommon in lowlands and lower foothills.  Seen occasionally with mixed flocks at Rνo Silanche. [261:9]

544       Golden Tanager* (Tangara arthus) –1– Common in the upper foothills and the subtropics.

545       Silver-throated Tanager (Tangara icterocephala) –1– Fairly common in lowlands and foothills.  Also found near Tandayapa, an unusually high elevation for this species. [262:9]

546       Flame-faced Tanager (Tangara parzudakii) –2– Locally fairly common in the upper foothills and subtropics. [262:6]

547       Rufous-throated Tanager (Tangara rufigula) –1– Locally common.  Usually easy along the Milpe road, also can be found along the Mindo road. [262:8]

548       Bay-headed Tanager* (Tangara gyrola) –1– Common in the lowlands and foothills. [263:1]

549       Rufous-winged Tanager (Tangara lavinia) –4– Uncommon with mixed flocks in the lower foothills.  Still seen occasionally at Rνo Silanche. [263:2]

550       Scrub Tanager (Tangara vitriolina) –5– Small numbers occur in Puluahua. Pair seen by us at Quito Botanical gardens. There is a recent unconfirmed report from the Tandayapa Valley.

551       Golden-naped Tanager* (Tangara ruficervix) –2– Common in the subtropics.  Rare in upper foothills.

552       Metallic-green Tanager (Tangara labradorides) –2– Fairly common in the subtropics. [263:6]

553       Blue-necked Tanager* (Tangara cyanicollis) –1– Common in lowlands and foothills, rarely higher.

554       Golden-hooded Tanager (Tangara larvata) –2– Common in the lowlands and lower foothills.  Usually easy at Rνo Silanche. [264:5]

555       Beryl-spangled Tanager* (Tangara nigroviridis) –1– Common in the subtropics. [264:4]

556       Blue-and-black Tanager* (Tangara vassorii) –3– Uncommon with mixed flocks in the Upper Tandayapa Valley and in Yanacocha.  Perhaps seasonal. [264:3]

557       Black-capped Tanager* (Tangara heinei) –1– Common in the subtropics. [265:1]

558       Blue Dacnis* (Dacnis cayana) –3– Uncommon in the lowlands and foothills. [266:9]

559       Black-faced (Yellow-tufted) Dacnis* (Dacnis lineata aequatorialis) –2– Common in the lowlands and foothills. [266:3b]

560       Scarlet-thighed Dacnis (Dacnis venusta) –4– Scarce with mixed flocks at Rνo Silanche. [266:8]

561       Scarlet-breasted Dacnis (Dacnis berlepschi) VU –3– Uncommon in lowlands and lower foothills, though it is still seen quite frequently in Rνo Silanche.  Chocσ Restricted Range Species. [266:6]

562       Green Honeycreeper* (Chlorophanes spiza) –1– Common in the lowlands and foothills.

563       Purple Honeycreeper* (Cyanerpes caeruleus) –2– FC in the lowlands and foothills. [267:4]

564       Swallow Tanager* (Tersina viridis) –2– Fairly common in the lowlands and foothills. [265:6]

565       Buff-throated Saltator* (Saltator maximus) –1– Common from lowlands through to lower subtropics. [285:3]

566       Black-winged Saltator (Saltator atripennis) –1– Common from lowlands through to lower subtropics. Song like a very musical Cardinal.

567       Slate-colored Grosbeak* (Saltator grossus) –2– FC in lowlands and foothills, but not easy to see. Whistled song like Summer Tanager phrasing, "jooyoo joy aa tooweee teeeee."

 

EMBERIZINE FINCHES (EMBERIZIDAE)

568       Plumbeous Sierra-Finch (Phrygilus unicolor) –5– A few records from Yanacocha.  Probably more common on the upper road. [272:6]

569       Ash-breasted Sierra-Finch (Phrygilus plebejus) –3– Usually at Calacalν and at Pululahua road, but might vacate the area in extremely dry periods.

570       Band-tailed Sierra-Finch (Phrygilus alaudinus) –5– Also found at Calacalν near the racetrack. [272:8]

571       Blue-black Grassquit* (Volatinia jacarina) –1– Common in grassy areas from the lowlands through to the lower subtropics.

572       Variable Seedeater (Sporophila corvina) –1– Very common in grassy areas in lowlands and foothills.  Uncommon in the lower subtropics.

573       Black-and-white Seedeater* (Sporophila luctuosa) –4– Uncommon and erratic in grassy areas. With numerous scattered sightings from the upper foothills and subtropics.  May be more common in and around Mindo, where a large flock can sometimes be seen in grassy fields on the edge of the town. [276:2]

574       Yellow-bellied Seedeater* (Sporophila nigricollis) –1– Abundant in fields lowlands to subtropics. [276:7]

575       Thick-billed (Lesser) Seed-Finch* (Oryzoborus funereus [angolensis]) –2– FC in grassy areas in lowlands and lower foothills. Complex extended whistled finch phrasing with stuttering. Some Goldfinchy notes. [277:7]

576       Large-billed Seed-Finch (Oryzoborus crassirostris) –6– One record Milpe Sept 2007. [277:11]

577       Plain-colored Seedeater (Catamenia inornata) –2– Common in agricultural highlands.  Most easily seen along the Yanacocha entrance track.

578       Pαramo Seedeater (Catamenia homochroa) –5– One or two sightings a year in mixed flocks at Yanacocha. [278:1]

579       Band-tailed Seedeater (Catamenia analis) –3– Uncommon agricultural highlands and near Calacalν. [278:3]

580       Yellow-faced Grassquit (Tiaris olivacea) –3– Uncommon but may be increasingly in the Los Bancos, Mindo, and Tandayapa areas. [274:1]

581       Dull-colored Grassquit (Tiaris obscura) –3– Fairly common from lowlands to lower subtropics, but easily overlooked. Very buzzy high-pitched four or five note phrase, "zeee veee zeeee veetttt or zeee zeee veee prrrttt teeeoooo." [274:4]

582       Slaty Finch* (Haplospiza rustica) –5– Very rare and erratic.  Most records are from Yanacocha with one from the Tandayapa Valley.

583       Masked Flowerpiercer (Diglossa cyanea) –1– Common in the subtropical and temperate zones. Red eyed. Phrases also spaced with pauses, less fall off and slower than Black. [269:1]

584       Glossy Flowerpiercer (Diglossa lafresnayii) –1– Common in temperate forest, especially at Yanacocha. Sustained sparrow phrasing that sometimes goes on and on. [269:2]

585       Black Flowerpiercer (Diglossa humeralis) –2– Common temperate zone, even in agricultural areas. Minimal rump pallor in Ecuador subspecies. Smaller shoulder chevron than Glossy. Male wings may be overall blacker. Tends to forage lower in the trees. Song twittered phrases separated by pauses. [269:4]

586       White-sided Flowerpiercer (Diglossa albilatera) –1– Common in the subtropical and temperate zones, though it only rarely occurs at Yanacocha.  Visits the feeders at Tandayapa Bird Lodge. Flank marking faint but present in male. Song is a short dry trill. [269:1]

587       Indigo Flowerpiercer (Diglossa indigoticus) –5– Very rare. Seen on several occasions along the Mashpi entrance road in 2009-2010. May prove to be regular. [269:6]

588       Rusty Flowerpiercer (Diglossa sittoides) –4– Following the winter rains it becomes seasonally common at Calacalν.  At other times seems wholly absent.  It has also been recorded on two occasions in the Tandayapa Valley. Slower more musical twitter that White-sided. [270:1]

589       Grassland Yellow-Finch (Sicalis luteola) –4– Small flocks can be found around Calacalν, mostly early in the morning. [273:3]

590       Tanager Finch (Oreothraupis arremonops) VU –3– The Upper Tandayapa Valley is probably the best place in the world to see this rare and endangered species.  Even still, a little luck is needed.  Chocσ Restricted Range Species. Song zeees, buzzy with bouncing faster section in the middle, like laughter. "Zitta zitt a zitt zitt zee zeee zeeee." [280:6]

591       Yellow-breasted (Rufous-naped) Brush-Finch (Atlapetes latinuchus) –1– Common in the temperate zone, also near Tandayapa Pass.  Numerous at Yanacocha. Sparrow phrasing with pauses. [280:3]

592       Tricolored Brush-Finch (Atlapetes tricolor) –1– Common forest edge foothills and subtropics. "peeer pretty SEEEuh....who tweeee.'' [281:5]

593       White-winged Brush-Finch (Atlapetes leucopterus) –2– Locally fairly common in the Tandayapa area.  A pair lives around the Lodge where they are quite tame and easy to see. Spinning wheel song.

594       Crimson Finch (Rhodospingus cruentus) –5– Rare and probably seasonal in lowlands and lower foothills.  Records from Rνo Silanche and NW of La Celica. Song very buzzy, hissing "tseee tsssssssst." Tumbesian Restricted Range Species. [272:3]

595       Chestnut-capped Brush-Finch* (Arremon brunneinucha) –1– Common but inconspicuous inside forest in the subtropics and lower temperate zone.  Locally in foothills, for example at Four Rivers.  Easily seen from the hide at Tandayapa. [283:1]

596       Stripe-headed Brush-Finch (Arremon torquatus) –3– FC in the temperate zone but very shy. Stuttering sharply whistled phrases "zeet, zipp a zeet,  caaa zipp, zeeett, aaa wheeett." Goes and goes.

597       Olive Finch* (Arremon castaneiceps) –5– Quite rare in this area near streams and rivers.  Several territories have been found along the trails at Milpe. [283:5]

598       Orange-billed Sparrow* (Arremon aurantiirostris) –2– Common, skulking lowlands, foothills. Call very high pitched chipping with skipping rhythm. [279:1]

599       Black-striped Sparrow (Arremonops conirostris) –2– FC in cleared areas in the lowlands and foothills. [279:6]

600       Rufous-collared Sparrow* (Zonotrichia capensis) –1– An abundant resident of open areas and towns from the upper foothills and higher.

 

GROSBEAKS, ETC. (CARDINALIDAE)

601       Summer Tanager* (Piranga rubra) –2– Fairly common boreal migrant lowlands to the subtropics.

602       Scarlet Tanager* (Piranga olivacea) –6– Only a few records of this boreal migrant. [255:5]

603       White-winged Tanager* (Piranga leucoptera) –3– Usually uncommon in the foothills and lower subtropics.  Frequently perches conspicuously at the top of the canopy. Whistled "wee weee seee wheat    see weee weet." With repetition and pauses. [255:4]

604       Ochre-breasted Tanager (Chlorothraupis stolzmanni) –2– Locally common lowlands and foothills.  Most of year sings very loudly and persistently in early morning, making it fairly easy to locate. Song sustained phrasing often with "cheww wee wee" trios as well as Cardinal like runs. [252:2]

605       Southern Yellow (Golden-bellied) Grosbeak* (Pheucticus chrysogaster) –2– Common in agricultural areas in the temperate zone, locally found in smaller numbers in the subtropics. Vireo phrased whistled sequences with pauses. "Teeewittt teee wittt teee    cheww wee ittt tee ittt." [284:8]

606       Rose-breasted Grosbeak* (Pheucticus ludovicianus) –4– Rare boreal migrant.  Most often seen along the Mindo road.

607       Blue Seedeater (Amaurospiza concolor) –5– Rare in the subtropics.  A few sightings near Tandayapa Bird Lodge and along the Mindo road. [286:2]

608       Blue-black Grosbeak (Cyanocompsa cyanoides) –4– One singing immature male was taped in and seen at Rνo Silanche on 30 Jul 2004. Apparently more common now as we had several at Rνo in 2011, both sexes. [286:1]

 

 

ORIOLES AND BLACKBIRDS (ICTERIDAE)

609       Scrub Blackbird (Dives warszewiczi) –2– Common and increasing in cut-over areas in the lowlands and foothills.  Has been found nesting near Mindo.

610       Shiny Cowbird* (Molothrus bonariensis) –1– Common in lowlands and foothills, occasionally higher.

611       Giant Cowbird* (Molothrus oryzivorus) –3– Found from lowlands to lower subtropics, but generally scarce.  They seem to be more common around Mindo.

612       Yellow-tailed Oriole (Icterus mesomelas) –4– Uncommon in heavily disturbed habitats in lowlands, lower foothills.  Probably increasing.

613       Yellow-billed Cacique (Amblycercus holosericeus) –6– One record, two birds Yanacocha 28 Jan 2005.

614       Yellow-rumped Cacique* (Cacicus cela) –6– A single sighting at Rνo Silanche on 26 Mar 2003. [297:1]

615       Scarlet-rumped Cacique (Cacicus microrhynchus) –3– Uncommon in lowlands and foothills.  Still seen regularly at Rνo Silanche. Call "chewww chewww chewww" pairings and triplets, more musical than the east Andean C. uropygialis. [296:7]

616       Russet-backed Oropendola* (Psarocolius angustifrons) –4– Surprisingly scarce in subtropical zone. A very musical Oropendola with rising "do do doo doo walk uppp" or monkey like "who who who who ca wheeee." [295:5]

 

CARDUELINE FINCHES (FRINGILLIDAE)

617       Thick-billed Euphonia* (Euphonia laniirostris) –1– Common from the lowlands through to the lower subtropics. [304:6]

618       Golden-rumped Euphonia* (Euphonia cyanocephala) –2– Locally fairly common at Calacalν, near Tandayapa, and near Mindo. We had a pair at the Quito Botanical gardens. [305:3]

619       Orange-bellied Euphonia* (Euphonia xanthogaster) –1– Common from the lowlands to the subtropics. Subspecies chocoensis is not orange bellied. [305:2]

620       White-vented Euphonia (Euphonia minuta) –5– Very few records, all from Rνo Silanche. [305:5]

621       Orange-crowned Euphonia (Euphonia saturata) –3– Uncommon and local from lowlands to lower subtropics.  Can be seen regularly in and around Mindo during much of the year. [304:3]

622       Fulvous-vented Euphonia (Euphonia fulvicrissa) –5– Rare in lowlands and lower foothills.  Records come from Rνo Silanche and NW of La Celica. [304:10]

623       Yellow-collared Chlorophonia (Chlorophonia flavirostris) –3– Seasonally fairly common in the upper foothills and lower subtropics.  Can be numerous along the Milpe road, at Mindo Lindo, and above Mindo, mainly between November and March. Note a drawn "peeeeeee," like the first note of a White-throated Sparrow. Chocσ Restricted Range Species. [305:8]

624       Chestnut-breasted Chlorophonia (Chlorophonia pyrrhophrys) –5– Rare and unpredictable in the subtropical zone.  Most sightings come from the Lower Tandayapa Valley and the upper part of the Mindo road. "Peeeuu", male call, female makes squeaky alien three or four note reply "work-the-puzzle, wit". [305:6]

625       Hooded Siskin (Spinus magellanica) –3– Quite common in the agricultural highlands around Yanacocha, Nono, Quito, and Calacalν.  Occasionally lower, and a few records from the subtropics. [303:1]

626       Andean Siskin (Spinus spinescens) –5– One male seen twice at Yanacocha in July 2004. [302:1]

627       Yellow-bellied Siskin (Spinus xanthogastra) –3– Uncommon from the lowlands through to the lower subtropics at Tandayapa.

628       Lesser Goldfinch (Spinus psaltria) –5– Occasional at Tandayapa village.  Few sightings elsewhere.

 

OLD WORLD SPARROWS (PASSERIDAE)

629       House Sparrow (Passer domesticus) –3– Introduced. A few live in San Miguel de Los Bancos and Pedro Vicente Maldonado.