The birds below are the full listing of birds from the Napo Wildlife center area in lowland eastern Ecuador. Frequency ratings of [1, 2, 3] are from La Selva's nearby lodge listing. With [1] (256 birds) being 100% chance of seeing on a visit, [2] (126 birds) 50% and [3] (158 birds) 25% or less. No number rating means that bird was not included on La Selva's list but is possible for the region. I have updated many of these from the newer La Selva list. The remainder (now about 50) of them mostly have R or VR ratings from Ridgely's B of E. Presently there are 590 species total here. Only 74 are NA overlap birds.

List is now ordered consistent with Clements World checklist, now updated through 2011.  Some rearrangement within family sections to make comparison easier. Other lists on the website including the full east slope list from Wild Sumaco is here (unmodified). And the original list link from the Napo Wildlife center here. A specific bird list for the higher elevation Yanacocha Trust is here. San Isidro area list on the east side above Sumaco is here. And a shortened and location divided list for San Isidro and Guango is here. Also the list for the La Selva Lodge in lowland Ecuador is here. And La Selva's newer list with site localities within La Selva area is here. The new Tahuayo list is here. That list has reference plate pages to Birds of Ecuador. Note that it is not in Clements order and has some older scientific names. Xeno page for La Selva recordings. Papallacta Pass list is here.

Taxonomy and nomenclature are updated in places from the older The Birds of Ecuador: Field Guide by Robert S. Ridgely and Paul J. Greenfield and from the newer Birds of Northern South America by Robin Restall. The plate images in Restall's book are more extensive and of higher quality. Many of these birds also occur in Peru and appear in the beautiful Birds of Peru update from Princeton 2007. Plates there are from at least five artists. And most of the written sections are from the sorely missed Ted Parker.

Species Latin names in BLUE are linked to calls or call listings. Most birds here are linked to the Macauley recordings search listing at Cornell labs, and most to single recordings. (MAC links.) Some are linked to Xeno Canto's search listing when recordings are rare. Recordings from the Macauley site when linked to single recordings can be expanded on the pages there to show the full recordings list for that species.

Bracketed numbers [XXX:YY] are plate and bird numbers from Birds of Northern South America by Robin Restall. {AAA:BB} are plate and bird numbers for Birds of Peru. Only a few species here do not occur in Peru as well. Numbers linked in brackets in some species to image pages. Unseen for me.

Elevational zones:

        Lowlands 150–350 metres. The majority of western Amazonia.

        Lower Foothills 350–850 meters.

        Upper Foothills 850–1300 meters. Essentially the altitudes just below Sumaco and the surrounding foothills west of Napo.

Section (click to jump to the section):

Antbirds, Finches, Hummingbirds, Manakins, Ovenbirds, Parrots, Puffbirds, Raptors, Tanagers, Thrushes, Toucans, Tyrant Flycatchers, Woodcreepers, Woodpeckers, Wrens


Great Tinamou Tinamus major [1] {1:3} The first Tinamou I ever heard. The classic ringing rising "Werrrr whoooOOoo, whereeee whoooooOOoo."

White-throated Tinamou Tinamus guttatus [2] {1:4} Slightly smaller than Great. Spots on back, creamier with scaling on head. Reverberant hollow whistled "Whooooo,  whoooooooo."

Cinereous Tinamou Crypturellus cinereus [1] {2:1} Overall dark bird. Clear single whistles "wheeeeet."

Little Tinamou Crypturellus soui [2] {2:2} Quavering single note. "wheeeoouuuu."

Brown Tinamou Crypturellus obsoletus [3] {2:3} [2:2] Higher elevation bird that is more from the foothills. Shreaking "Whee whee wheeee wheeeee wheEEE WHEEEE." Louder as it goes.

Undulated Tinamou Crypturellus undulatus [1] {2:4} White throated with fine barring over back. "Whoo.....whoo whooee?"

Variegated Tinamou Crypturellus variegatus [1] {2:5} Strong rufous barring on back and wings. "Whooo....who who who who wee weee wee wee wee."

Bartlett's Tinamou Crypturellus bartletti [1] {2:6} Highly color variable but stronger barring than undulatus. "Peee...peee..... peeee.....peeeee....peeEE..." Ringing with very slow increase in speed.



Horned Screamer Anhima cornuta [3] {26:1} [4:2] Unearthly, unbelievable call. Like dueting badly blown clarinets. Everyone with ears needs to hear this.



Orinoco Goose Neochen jubata [VR] {6:4}

Black-bellied Whistling Duck Dendrocygna autumnalis [3] {6:1}

Masked Duck Nomonyx dominicus [VR]

Blue-winged Teal Anas discors [3]

Muscovy Duck Cairina moschata [3]



Speckled Chachalaca Ortalis guttata [1] {9:2} 20 inch birds, smaller than all of the below. They make sheer racket. Like mad hogs or insane roosters. "Uhn uhn uhn  uhn   whakkitt-ee-pooop, whakkitt-eee-poooop."

Common (Blue-throated) Piping-Guan Pipile pipile [2] {11:1} [9:8} 28 inch birds. Crosses rivers in long glides. Upper secondaries washed with white. High pitched rising whistles. Escalating up the scale to beyond hearing. "oyee oyee weee weee weeEE WEEEEEEE."

Spix's Guan Penelope jacquacu [2] {10:6} 32 inch birds, partially arboreal. Alarms loudly and crashes through the trees. The only brown Cracid around. Lion like "Rowww, rowww,    roowwww uhhh   rooowwwwww."

Nocturnal Curassow Nothocrax urumutum [3] {11:5} 27 inch birds. Rufous with  mohawk and a bare blue eye patch. Sticks close to rivers. Extremely difficult to see in the daytime. And thus not shot out like some of the larger "game birds." As stated elsewhere, the sound link is one of the greatest bird recordings of all time. Like dueling owls discussing the quality of the darkness. 27 January 1985. Once again, I miss Ted.

Salvin's Curassow Mitu salvini [3] {11:3} 34 inch birds, bright red beak and otherwise black except the vent which is white. Song like musically humming cattle. Call is a mouse-like squeak.



Marbled Wood-Quail Odontophorus gujanensis [2] {9:4} Mapped out by voice as virtually impossible to see. Two noted dueting male and females. Only quail in the area.



Least Grebe Tachybaptus dominicus [VR] {12:5}



Wood Stork Mycteria americana [3] {5:2}



Neotropical Cormorant Phalacrocorax brasilianus [2] {22:2}



Anhinga Anhinga anhinga [1] {22:5}



Brown Pelican Pelicanus occidentalis [3]



Cocoi (White-necked) Heron Ardea cocoi  [1] {23:1} Great Blue equivalent for the area. Immatures can be mistaken for GBH but the North American bird is not well documented in the eastern areas. 

Great Egret Ardea alba [1]

Snowy Egret Egretta thula  [1]

Little Blue Heron Egretta caerulea [2]

Cattle Egret Egretta ibis [1]

Striated Heron Butorides striatus  [1] {25:4} Like a grayish toned version of our Green.

Green Heron Butorides virescens [3] Rare boreal migrant. Even rarer after March.

Rufescent Tiger-Heron Tigrisoma lineatum [1] {23:4}

Zigzag Heron Zebrilus undulatus [2] {25:6} Solitary, dark, Least Bittern sized. Skulky. Odd "owwwahh" noises.

Agami Heron Agamia agami [3] {23:5}

Capped Heron Pilherodius pileatus  [2] {24:5} Distinctive cap and creamy neck with a white body.

Black-crowned Night-Heron Nycticorax nycticorax [1]

Least Bittern Ixobrychus exilis [1]

Boat-billed Heron Cochlearius cochlearius [2]



Green Ibis Mesembrinibis cayennensis [3] {26:5}

Bare-faced Ibis Phimosus infuscatus [VR] A red faced Ibis with isolated records in NE Ecuador mainly along the Napo.

Roseate Spoonbill Ajaia ajaja Napo [3]



Turkey Vulture Cathartes aura [1]

Greater Yellow-headed Vulture Cathartes melambrotus [1] {27:4} Note wing darkening differences from Turkey in flight.

Black Vulture Coragyps atratus [1]

King Vulture Sarcoramphus papa [1]



Osprey Pandion haliaetus [1]

Gray-headed Kite Leptodon cayanensis [2]

Hook-billed Kite Chondrohierax uncinatus [3]

Swallow-tailed Kite Elanoides forficatus [1]

[Pearl Kite Gampsonyx swainsonii (Coca airport)] [U] {29:5}

Snail Kite Rostrhamus sociabilis [3] {30:2}

Slender-billed Kite Rostrhamus hamatus [3] {35:3} A Snail Kite without any white.

Double-toothed Kite Harpagus bidentatus [1] {32:2}

Plumbeous Kite Ictinia plumbea [2] {30:3} 

Tiny Hawk Accipiter superciliosus [3] {31:1} 11 inch females just smaller than Sharpies. No Sharpies here.

Bicolored Hawk Accipiter bicolor [3] {31:4} 18 inch females, usually with reddish femoral coverts, strongly barred tail.

Gray-bellied Hawk Accipiter poliogaster [R] {31:3.5} 18 inch females. No red on legs or belly feathers. Juveniles colored like Ornate Hawk-Eagles.

Crane Hawk Geranospiza caerulescens [3] {30:1} River edges. White curved lunules at the base of the primaries.

Slate-colored Hawk Leucopternis schistacea [1] {35:4} Single white bar in tail in adult. Juveniles with two. Bright red legs. Colored like a Rostrhamus otherwise with red face.

Black-faced Hawk Leucopternis melanops [2] {34:3} Smaller than White Hawk with tail barred, not just tipped.

White Hawk Leucopternis albicollis [3] {34:2} White tipped tail. Gray barred secondaries and primaries.

Great Black Hawk Buteogallus urubitinga [3] {36:2} Yellow feet, base of tail half white in adult.

Black-collared Hawk Busarellus nigricollis [VR] {36:4} 

Roadside Hawk Buteo magnirostris [1]

Broad-winged Hawk Buteo platypterus [R]

Short-tailed Hawk Buteo brachyurus [3] {37:2}

Crested Eagle Morphnus guianensis [3] {41:3}

Harpy Eagle Harpia harpyja [3] {41:4}

Black-and-white Hawk-Eagle Spizastur melanoleucus [3] {29:3} Black eye mark. Like White Hawk in flight with a multi-barred tail. 3 to 4 inches larger than White or Black-faced.

Black Hawk-Eagle Spizaetus tyrannus [2] {35:2}

Ornate Hawk-Eagle Spizaetus ornatus [2] {41:2}



Black Caracara Daptrius ater [1] {42:2} Lanky dark Caracara look. Red-faced, single white mid-tail bar.

Red-throated Caracara Ibycter americanus [1] {42:1} White belly with white-black wings. Large white terminal tail band. Screeches, screams and caterwauls.

Yellow-headed Caracara Milvago chimachima [2]

Laughing Falcon Herpetotheres cachinnans [2]

Barred Forest-Falcon Micrastur ruficollis [3] {32:4} 3 or 4 tail bands. 13 inch birds. Three to four note sequences mainly of "kyews" or "whews".

Lined Forest-Falcon Micrastur gilvicollis [2] {32:3} 1 or 2 tail bands. 13 inch birds. Sequences of "kyuh" and "kuh" growing louder.

Slaty-backed Forest-Falcon Micrastur mirandollei [2] {33:4} No collar, no white facial mark. 17 inch birds. Higher and faster than Collared. Next to last note drawn and rising.

Collared Forest-Falcon Micrastur semitorquatus [3] {33:2} 22 inch bird like a large Buckley's. Human sounding "aww" doubled and in rising sequence.

Buckley's Forest-Falcon Micrastur buckleyi [3] {33:3} 17 inch bird. Strong wrap around collar. Shorter sequence than the larger Collared. "ah oW"

Bat Falcon Falco rufigularis [1] {44:2}

Orange-breasted Falcon Falco deiroleucus [R] {44:1}

Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus Napo [3]



Sunbittern Eurypyga helias [2] {45:3}



Uniform Crake Amaurolimnas concolor [R] {46:4}

Chestnut-headed Crake Anurolimnas castaneiceps [3] {46:5} Red head and chest plate. Like Black-banded with no belly bars and green legs.

Gray-breasted Crake Laterallus exilis [3] {48:5} Like a Black Rail with no barring on the back.

Rufous-sided Crake Laterallus melanophaius [3] {48:2} White throat and underbelly, between red sides.

Black-banded Crake Laterallus fasciatus [3] {48:1} Red-legged compared to CHC above.

Gray-necked Wood-Rail Aramides cajanea [1] {45:5}

Red-winged Wood-Rail Aramides calopterus [VR] {45:6} Voice not yet identified?? Wow.

Purple Gallinule Porphyrula martinica [2]

Azure Gallinule Porphyrula flavirostris [1] {49:1}



Sungrebe Heliornis fulica [2] {8:5} Mostly quiet but some barking "coo coo coo-AH" and "coo-ah  coo-ah" notes.



Limpkin Aramus guarauna [3] {24:3} Amazing array of screams and yaps in varied combinations. Usually at dawn.



Gray-winged Trumpeter Psophia crepitans [2] {45:1} Deep growling followed by quacking sequences. And an alien saucer noise.



Southern Lapwing Vanellus chilensis [2] Quite a bit larger than Pied Plover, darker body.

Pied Plover (Lapwing) Hoploxypterus cayanus [1] {50:5} Large, black-masked with red legs. Wings gray-white-black in flight. Sand bars on the Napo.

Collared Plover Charadrius collaris [1] {52:1} Like a brownish Snowy with pale legs.

Semipalmated Plover Charadrius semipalmatus [R]

American (Lesser) Golden-Plover Pluvialis dominica [R]



Wattled Jacana Jacana jacana [1] {50:3}



Solitary Sandpiper Tringa solitaria  [3]

Lesser Yellowlegs Tringa flavipes  [3]

Greater Yellowlegs Tringa melanoleuca  [1]

Spotted Sandpiper Actitis macularia  [1]

Pectoral Sandpiper Calidris melanotos  [3]

Least Sandpiper Calidris minutilla  [1]

Semipalmated Sandpiper Calidris pusilla  [3]

Sanderling Calidris alba  [3]



Laughing Gull Leucophaeus atricilla [VR]

Large-billed Tern Phaetusa simplex [2] {62:3} 15 inch birds, dark primaries.

Yellow-billed Tern Sterna superciliaris [1] {62:1} "kree" and "kew" notes. Least Tern sized.



Black Skimmer Rynchops niger [2]



Pale-vented Pigeon Columba cayennensis [1] "whooOOoo up-up-whooOOo up-up-whooOOo" aggressive.

Plumbeous Pigeon Columba plumbea [1] {64:1} "woo whOOoOO whoOOo" occasionally last note missing.

Ruddy Pigeon Columba subvinacea [1] {64:2} "WOOP ah-WOOP oo" (hit the foul pole according to Ted).

Ruddy Ground-Dove Columbina talpacoti [2] {66:3} "cu-WHoop cu-Whoop cu-Whoop...".

Blue Ground-Dove Claravis pretiosa [3] {67:1} "POOP POOP POOP POOP...".

Gray-fronted Dove Leptotila rufaxilla [1] {67:5} Hollow rising singles of "whooOOOoo" repeated.

White-tipped Dove Leptotila verreauxi [2] {67:4} "who HOOooooo." Doubled and falling off.

Ruddy Quail-Dove Geotrygon montana [2] {68:1} "wheeEEWW" shorter and less hollow than GFD.

Sapphire Quail-Dove Geotrygon saphirina [2] {68:2} "Wheewwwewww." Descending and higher than RQD.



Blue-and-yellow Macaw Ara ararauna [1] {69:1} Unmistakable, all blues and yellows. Repeated rolling "rRAA-A-AAHHt".

Scarlet Macaw Ara macao [2] {69:3} Yellow secondary patch above where chloroptera is green. Harsh "RAAAHHH" more nasal and throaty than BYM.

Red-and-green Macaw Ara chloroptera [3] {69:6} Also rolling "rAAAAed". Slightly higher than above.

Chestnut-fronted Macaw Ara severa [1] {69:5} "AAAee AAAeee" shorter higher and repetitive compared to the big three above.

Red-bellied Macaw Orthopsittaca manilata [1] {69:2} Rufous vent patch. Strong yellow facial patch. High pitched weak "greee greeah grrrree" very different from the Ara calls.

White-eyed Parakeet Aratinga leucophthalmus [2] {70:2} Large pale bill. Red facial spotting. Red-yellow wing bend mark from below. Harsh "reeEett reeeeEhtt reet reeettt".

Dusky-headed Parakeet Aratinga weddellii  [1] {70:6} Black beaked. Wings mostly green from below. Yellow vent and lower chest from below in flight making tail look dark green in flight. Thin more insect-like, rusty "ree reee reeeettt eet".

Maroon-tailed Parakeet Pyrrhura melanura [1] {71:4} Only 9 inch Pyrrhura around. "Greet greeet greet greett greet" often fast in flight.

Blue-winged Parrotlet Forpus xanthopterygius [2] {73:5} Also blue coverts from below in male. Male feet blacker than DB. And has a smaller blue rump. Impressively high pitched compared to the larger parrots. Like sparrows squeaking "peet peep peet peep peep peet". Sharper and shorter notes than DB.

Dusky-billed Parrotlet Forpus modestus [2] {73:6} Blue coverts from below in the male. Blue rumped also. Females yellow faced. Even higher pitched scratchy rising, like cardinal chips "whee wheeet whee whee wheee."

Cobalt-winged Parakeet Brotogeris cyanoptera [1] {73:2} Male and female the same. Small orange chin patch. Coverts appear green compared to secondaries and primaries. Rapid fire high "jeet-jeeet".

Scarlet-shouldered Parrotlet Touit huetii [1] {74:4} Big red triangle of wing covert red from beneath. Males with blue facial patch. Males also with red lateral tail feathers which females lack. Telegraphic "Brrr brrrtt, brr brrt, brrr brrrt."

Black-headed Parrot Pionites melanocephala [1] {74:1} Yellow white and then yellow body offset by all dark wings with green coverts from below in flight. Tail also appears dark. "WHheee whee whee wheee" falling off and slowing. Like a hoarse seagull.

Orange-cheeked Parrot Pionopsitta barrabandi [1] {74:6} Cheeks more yellow patched in Ecuador. Pionus sized. Black headed with red wing coverts from below. "Kuu weeEET. Wheeet-ieet" sharp and rising.

Blue-headed Parrot Pionus menstruus [1] {75:1} Sharp "cuweett cwweet cweett."

Short-tailed Parrot Graydidascalus brachyurus [U] {76:1} Large beak, red eyed. Sticks to large rivers. All green from below with shorter and rounded tail compared to the larger Amazonas. "Kreeee keeeeee, kree kii kiii kieeee." Some squeaky hiccoughs and double noted brrrs.

Festive Amazon Amazona festiva [3] {76:2} All blue primaries from above, appear dark tipped from below, no red wing patch. Adults with red rump. Tail all greenish from below. As varied in voice as Mealy, growns and growls, trumpets, painful noises "Woooww oh-wooowwww. Uhh ohhhh."

Yellow-crowned Amazon Amazona ochrocephala [1] {76:3} "Oww ohh  oww ohh gWoww, gwooww whoo did itt. Ownn it   ownn ittt." Some very odd mechanical noises. Sometimes owlish sounds.

Orange-winged Amazon Amazona amazonica [1] {76:4} Facial color patches bright yellow. Tail appears orange and yellowish. Not strongly demarcated. Wings similar to Mealy. Faster and squeakier than Mealy. "Chuckk weep weeep. CHuck chuck chuck chuck..." Also various groans and squeaks.

Mealy Amazon  Amazona farinosa [1] {76:6} Red elbow mark on wing from below. Tail appears two toned with broad paler band at tip. "Kuh CHucckk" also trumpets, squeaks, cell phone noises, painful rasps. Seems to have an endless repertoire.



Hoatzin Opisthocomus hoazin [1] From La Selva. {79:1} Rough barking noises.



Dark-billed Cuckoo Coccyzus melacoryphus [3] {77:5} Interesting rolling growl that speeds and then the notes become separated into "ohw ohw ohw ohw ohw."

Squirrel Cuckoo Piaya cayana [1] {78:2} Loud "KEEK wahh." Song a rising repeated "wheep   wheep    wheep" series as here.

Black-bellied Cuckoo Piaya melanogaster [2] {78:1} Gray headed, darker on belly than Squirrel. "rhii kid CHOOO." Rolling with slight rattle.

Little Cuckoo Coccycua minuta [2] {78:3} Appears all red and crested. Sounds are sharp "kik" as in this first recording. Some songs here. "meeuuuuh meh meh meh mehmehmehmeew."

Greater Ani Crotophaga major [1] {78:4}

Smooth-billed Ani Crotophaga ani  [1] {78:5}

Rufous-vented Ground-Cuckoo Neomorphus geoffroyi [3] {79:5} Claps beak rapidly. Rising hoots, about 1 per 4 seconds spacing.



Tropical Screech-Owl Megascops choliba  [1] {81:2} "pu pu pu pu pu pu PUUU".

Tawny-bellied Screech-Owl Megascops watsonii [1] {81:1} "woo woo woo woo wuu wuuu wuuu wuuu.." repetitive slowly rising slightly.

Crested Owl Lophostrix cristata [2] {82:1} Often just single "wheeoOOw" notes.

Spectacled Owl Pulsatrix perspicillata [2] {82:2} Rattling sheet metal call.

Ferruginous Pygmy Owl Glaucidium brasilianum [1] {84:5}

Black-banded Owl Strix huhula [2] {82:5} "hu hu huu huu huuut WHEEWW."

Mottled Owl Strix virgata [VR] {82:7} Same pattern as Black-banded but less aggressive and quieter.

Striped Owl Pseudoscops clamator  [3] {83:2} Apparently no one has recorded the actual full call of this bird. Damn things must never do it. Macauley will drive you nuts on this one. "wooOOo" notes and screeches recorded in many locations. As well as a dog barking two noted noise.



Short-tailed Nighthawk Lurocalis semitorquatus [2] {86:2} Rufous belly equivalent for the lowlands.

Sand-colored Nighthawk Chordeiles rupestris  [1] {86:3} White triangles above and below on wings.

Lesser Nighthawk Chordeiles acutipennis [3] {86:7}

Common Nighthawk Chordeiles minor [3]

Nacunda Nighthawk Podager nacunda  [3] {86:5} White normal Nighthawk wing marks and white belly.

Pauraque Nyctidromus albicollis [1]

Ocellated Poorwill Nyctiphrynus ocellatus [3] {87:4}

Blackish Nightjar Caprimulgus nigrescens [R] {88:1}

Ladder-tailed Nightjar Hydropsalis climacocerca [1] {87:3} Only streamer tail in area.



Great Potoo Nyctibius grandis [1]

Common Potoo Nyctibius griseus [1] {85:1}

Long-tailed Potoo Nyctibius aethereus [3] {85:3}



Oilbird Steatornis caripensis [3] {85:7}



White-collared Swift Streptoprocne zonaris [1] {89:2}

Gray-rumped Swift Chaetura cinereiventris [1] {90:3}

Short-tailed Swift Chaetura brachyura  [1] {90:4}

Pale-rumped Swift Chaetura egregia [3] {90:2} Sweeter and slower chatter than Gray-rumped.

Lesser Swallow-tailed Swift Panyptila cayennensis [1] {91:1}

Neotropical (Fork-tailed) Palm-Swift Tachornis squamata [1] {91:2}



Rufous-breasted Hermit Glaucis hirsutus [1] {92:3} Rufous lateral tail patches, rufous throat and upper breast.

Great-billed (Long-tailed) Hermit Phaethornis malaris [1] {92:6} Essentially lowland Long-billed, white streamer tails.

White-bearded Hermit Phaethornis hispidus [1] {94:1} Darker overall and gray beneath compared to Great-billed. Also streamer tailed.

Straight-billed Hermit Phaethornis bourcieri [1] {94:4} Smaller and straight billed. Shorter streamers.

Black-throated (Little) Hermit Phaethornis atrimentalis [2] {93:3} Minimal streamer, dusky throated and darker breasted.

Reddish Hermit Phaethornis ruber [2] {93:2} 3 inch bird, males with dark belly band over rufous. Orange rumped and orange tail tips laterally.

Pale-tailed Barbthroat Threnetes leucurus [2] {92:4} Orange throat patch and impressive white undertail. Large white moustache.

Buff-tailed Sicklebill Eutoxeres condamini [R] {92:2} Sickle bill form. Likes Heliconia and sometimes sneaky about it. Paler tail markings than its highland cousin.

Gray-breasted Sabrewing Campylopterus largipennis [3] {95:2} 5 1/4 inch large hummers. With the sabre shaped wing. Green over gray in both sexes. White tipped tails.

White-necked Jacobin Florisuga mellivora [2] {95:5} Distinctive males. Females with scaly and grayed undersides, mainly green otherwise with some subtle tail banding.

Black-throated Mango Anthracothorax nigricollis [2] {95:7} The only local mango with the typical male/female mango sexual differences. Large aggressive hummers at feeders sometimes.

Festive Coquette Lophornis chalybeus [VR] {98:3}

Black-bellied Thorntail Popelairia langsdorffi [3] {98:1}

Blue-tailed Emerald Chlorostilbon mellisugus [2] {96:4} 3 inch humer, males green all over. Male black billed and with dark blue slightly notched tail. Female with post eye streak of white and blue tail with white tips.

Fork-tailed Woodnymph Thalurania furcata [1] {96:2}

Rufous-throated Sapphire Hylocharis sapphirina [R] {99:5} Rare and poorly known. Red-orange throat patch over blue-purple in both sexes. Coppery-bronzy square tail. Red-orange beak tipped with black.

White-chinned Sapphire Hylocharis cyanus [3] {99:6} Similar to above with whitish throat, blue tail and orange-copper rump patch.

Golden-tailed Sapphire Chrysuronia oenone [2] {99:4} Golden bronzy tails in all forms, blue and green dark bodies.

Olive-spotted Hummingbird Leucippus chlorocercus [1] {100:5} Very plain, green over gray in both sexes. Some pale tail tipping. Subtle throat spotting for its name. A river dweller. Vocal with chatter and sharp notes and a two note repetitive 'song' of "cliCHEW cliCHEW cliCHEW...".

Glittering-throated Emerald Amazilia fimbriata [2] {99:1} White arrow of color between the flanks and throat of striking reflective green. Red billed males. Also very vocal.

Gould's Jewelfront Heliodoxa aurescens [3] {96:6}

Fiery Topaz Topaza pyra [R] {97:2} Amazonian stunner. Though rare and local in northern amazonia. Would be difficult to mistake in either sex. Male streamer tailed. Female with a fiery throat patch. Flycatches over streams.

Black-throated Brilliant Heliodoxa shreibersii [3] {102:3} Fork tailed dark purple throated stunner of a Heliodoxa.

Black-eared Fairy Heliothryx auritus [2] {110:1}

Long-billed Starthroat Heliomaster longirostris [3] {110:2} White flanks. Blue crown, red throat. Darker bellied.



Blue-crowned Trogon Trogon curucui [2] {112:5} Blue over red males, ladder tailed. Females gray over red with distinctive plain gray beak. "Wert wert wert wert wert wert WEhrt WEHRt wert wert wert."

White-tailed (Green-backed) Trogon Trogon viridis [1] Blue over yellow males with extensive white in underside of tail. Pale blue eye ring. Gray over yellow females very similar to violaceus. "Oww oww oww oww choww choww choww chow chow chow" speeding slowly.

Violaceous (Guianan) Trogon Trogon violaceus [1] {112:7} Blue over yellow males. Gray over yellow females. "Welt welt we-lt we-lt we-lt" maintaining steadier cadence than curucui.

Black-tailed Trogon Trogon melanurus [1] Green over red males with orange beak, all black underside of tail. Males with orange eye ring. "Whooot wo-oot wo-oot wo-oot wo-oot wo-oot wooot woot" owlish, different from all of above.

Collared Trogon Trogon collaris [1] {112:2} Green white red males. "Whi-wiit wheow wheow wheow" almost whistled, higher.

Black-throated Trogon Trogon rufus [1] Green over yellow males, extensive white beneath tail. Brown over yellow females. "Whoo whout whout whout whout" slower and steady.

Pavonine Quetzal Pharomachrus pavoninus [3] {113:6} "Wheeooow-chort  wheeooww-chort  wheeoow-chort." First note descending, second abrupt like a whistled cough.



Blue-crowned (Amazonian) Motmot Momotus momota [1] {113:1} "whoo-puut    whoo-putt..."

Broad-billed Motmot Electron platyrhynchum [1]

Rufous Motmot Baryphthengus martii [1]



Ringed Kingfisher Megaceryle torquata  [1]

Amazon Kingfisher Chloroceryle amazona  [1] {114:1} Sounds like a Bald Eagle calling.

Green Kingfisher Chloroceryle americana  [1]

Green-and-Rufous Kingfisher Chloroceryle inda [1] {114:5}

Pygmy Kingfisher Chloroceryle aenea [2]



White-necked Puffbird Notharchus hyperrhynchus [1] {117:2} 10 inch puffbird. Like a giant Pied with a dark undertail. Long frog trill call.

Pied Puffbird Notharchus tectus [2] {117:1} Killdeer whistles. Peeps, spinning down and excited. 6 inch puffbird.

Chestnut-capped Puffbird Bucco macrodactylus [2] {117:5} Midstory birds in varzea and second growth. Chestnut cap over black-white-black face mask and barred underparts. Flycatcher call, "wheeEEuuu."

Collared Puffbird Bucco capensis [2] {117:4} Subcanopy and midstory birds. Rufous face and head, black chest bar. Odd "owww peew whee wee-aww whew-eww" dawn singing. Like a musical parrot.

Spotted Puffbird Bucco tamatia [VR] {117:6} Streams and swamp forest. Dark throat band and wedged spots below. "tuuee tuu-ee tuu-ee tuu-ee tuu-ee tuu-ee tu-ee" on and on until breathless.

White-chested Puffbird Malacoptila fusca [2] {118:5} Mostly dark and streaked with a white slash across upper chest. Downward moustache marks. Drawn whistles and descending "peeeee" notes. Only real streak headed species in area.

Lanceolated Monklet Micromonacha lanceolata [3] {118:4} 5 inch puffbird, brown headed. Mostly quiet and still. "swee sweee swee sweee" rising and mewling whistles.

Brown Nunlet Nonnula brunnea [1] {120:1} 5 inch bird, almost uniform brown. Red eye ring. Darker backed. "whee-ert whee-ert whee-ert" sustained like a high pitched Trogon.

Black-fronted Nunbird Monasa nigrifrons [1] {119:4} Bright orange beak, all black otherwise. "kee-ruupp kee-rupp kee-rupp cheww-w-w pu-r-r-r" excited and loud.

White-fronted Nunbird Monasa morphoeus [1] {119:6} White chin and facial mark above and below bill base. Similar sound but higher and faster than nigrifrons.

Yellow-billed Nunbird Monasa flavirostris [1] {119:5} Bright yellow bill. White shoulder marks. Squeaky parrot chatter.

Swallow-winged Puffbird Chelidoptera tenebrosa [1] {119:2} Big white rump patch and white undercoverts on wings from below. Very (painfully) high "wee weee weeeeet" notes.



White-eared Jacamar Galbalcyrhynchus leucotis [1] {115:5} Prominent white ear patch, large orange beak. Rising and falling rattle, kingfisher like, sometimes dueted. "whe-e-e-e-e-e-e-e-e-rr-r-r-r-r-r-r-r."

Brown Jacamar Brachygalba lugubris [1] {115:3} Sharp black bill, bird appears all dark. 6 inch bird. Thin and high. "p p p pee peet piitt pee peeee weeeee."

Yellow-billed Jacamar Galbula albirostris [2] {116:3} Male actually has white on the chin. Female with orange throat and chin. Yellow bill both sexes. High starting whistles then rattling. "wee weee weeee we-t-t-t-t-t-t-t-t-t-t-t-t-t".

White-chinned Jacamar Galbula tombacea [1] {116:5} White chin nonexistent. Green with orange belly. Dark billed in both sexes. 2/3 size of Great. Less whistled than YBJ. More like woodpecker sounds. "mew mew mew mew ew-e-w-ew-ew-ew-ew-w-w-w-w."

Purplish (Bronzy) Jacamar Galbula chalcothorax [1] {116:1} Multicolored with prominent triangle of white on throat. Dark billed. Mostly doubled notes after some weeps. "weep weep weep weep-puurt wee-purrrt."

Great Jacamar Jacamerops aureus [2] {115:2} Twice the size of Brown. Green backed, orange bellied. 12 inch bird. Long whistles trailing off. "heeeee-ooooooo."



Gilded (Black-spotted) Barbet Capito auratus [1] {121:1} Black mask, red to orange throat. "who doo  whoo doo  who doo  who doo  who oop  who oop  whoo opp."

Scarlet-crowned Barbet Capito aurovirens [1] {120:5} Scarlet crowned males, yellow orange throats in both sexes. Black face mask, green back. Large than LTB. Varzea and river island bird. Vibrating "who-oop    who-ooop    who-ooopp     whoo-ooopp    whoo-ooppp."

Lemon-throated Barbet Eubucco richardsoni [1] {121:4} Dark headed and green backed. "cooo cooo cooo coooo coooo cooooop."



Chestnut-eared Araçari Pteroglossus castanotis [1] {122:4} Yellow red yellow belly bands. Blue eye patch. Sharp like a tern "tsee-eeikk    tsee-iiekk."

Many-banded Araçari Pteroglossus pluricinctus [1] {122:6} Double dark belly bands over yellow. Higher and shorter than CEA. "tseeik  tseeik  tseeek tseek."

Lettered Araçari Pteroglossus inscriptus [2] {122:1} Plain yellow belly, upper mandible with row of dark vertical markings. Lower mandible all dark. Electrical frogs "grrrt  grerrt grrrt grrrrt."

Ivory-billed Araçari Pteroglossus azara [1] {122:2} Red and black upper chest, lower mandible pale. "reeaaccck  quak  quak   reeackk."

Golden-collared Toucanet Selenidera reinwardtii [2]  {124:1} Only Toucanet. Golden ear and eye patch. "grooow  grooow grooow grooow groooowww." Low and froggish.

White-throated (Cuvier's) Toucan Ramphastos tucanus [1] {124:3} Yelping call. "KEE yu reeep reeep".

Channel-billed (Yellow-ridged) Toucan Ramphastos vitellinus [1] {124:4} Nearly identical to WT but four to five inches smaller with less bill proportionately. Croaking and descending "keer keer keer" call.



Rufous-breasted Piculet Picumnus rufiventris [3] {126:3} Pic sized. Rufousy.

Lafresnaye’s Piculet Picumnus lafresnayi [2] {125:1} Pic sized, greenish overall. High descending trio of "seeep seeep seeeep" notes. Ted says very similar to Plushcrown call.

Spot-breasted Woodpecker Colaptes punctigula [2] {128:2} Strong white face patch, spotty breast. "wee wee wee wee wee wee weeiip."


Yellow-throated Woodpecker Piculus flavigula [3] {128:4} Strong yellow throat onto cheeks. High speed hammering. All three Piculus vocalizations are close. Weird raspy gasp in this species.

White-throated Woodpecker Piculus leucolaemus [3] {128:5} Red yellow red face, pale white chin patch. Rasp may be slightly higher. Perhaps more likely to do them in series.

Golden-green Woodpecker Piculus chrysochloros [3] {128:6} Distinct yellow moustache both sexes on green face. May be lowest pitched of the three gasps.


Chestnut Woodpecker Celeus elegans [1] {129:2} Appears dark overall for a Celeus.

Scale-breasted Woodpecker Celeus grammicus [2] {129:4} Paler yellow scaly breast. "wwRIkk-whoo    wwrIIKK-wheewww." Squeeky toy.

Cream-colored Woodpecker Celeus flavus [1] {129:6} Distinct cream head and body. Scratchy "peepurrr  pee purr  pee purrr pee puurrrr."

Ringed Woodpecker Celeus torquatus [2] {129:3} Flicker like, black chest shield. Brown ladder back. Piping, scratchy  "chee chee chee chewwwww."

Rufous-headed Woodpecker Celeus spectabilis [3] {129:5} Contrasting head, ladder backed paler.


Yellow-tufted Woodpecker Melanerpes cruentatus [1] {127:2} Distinct.

Little Woodpecker Veniliornis passerinus [1] {127:4} Mostly green with barring underneath. Face paler in males than on RSW. "keer keer kik kik kik."

Red-stained Woodpecker Veniliornis affinis [2] {127:3} Green with stronging barring on belly and some red tinge on shoulders. Rapid "ke ke ke ke ke kik ki kik ki kiit kit."

Lineated Woodpecker Dryocopus lineatus [1] {130:5} V on back broken at bottom.

Crimson-crested Woodpecker Campephilus rubricollis [1] {130:6} V-back complete with white.

Red-necked Woodpecker Campephilus rubricollis [3] {130:3} Male red neck and head with all black back. "Pp'tuewww" explosive and repeated.



Plain-brown Woodcreeper Dendrocincla fuliginosa [1] {131:4} 9 inches, large billed, mostly reddish brown.

White-chinned Woodcreeper Dendrocincla merula [R] {131:5} Definite white chin patch, yellow lower mandible. "pit it it itt itt ittt" sequences like an irritated wren chatter but higher and harsher.

Olivaceous Woodcreeper Sittasomus griseicapillus [3] {134:3} Greenish gray over reddish wings and tail.

Wedge-billed Woodcreeper Glyphorynchus spirurus [1] {131:3} Short beak, spot lines on chest.

Long-billed Woodcreeper Nasica longirostris [1] {135:2} 13 inch impressively beaked bird. "heeeout heeout heeeeout heeeeeoOUT wheeeeOUT wheeeeeeOUT." Nasal and almost sounds like heelpp heelllp. Fairly distinctive.

Cinnamon-throated Woodcreeper Dendrexetastes rufigula [1] {135:6} 9 inch, hefty bill for size. Red eyed. Purring rolling rattle. Like a fast Bird-voiced Treefrog that fades and slows, almost a harsh whine at the end.

Strong-billed Woodcreeper Xiphocolaptes promeropirhynchus [3] {132:1} 12 inch bird with broad dark beak. Series of "Three-peet" hiccoughs with a catbird mewling single call.

Amazonian Barred Woodcreeper Dendrocolaptes certhia [2] {132:5} Scaly Barred look. Red tail. Dark eye. Also a whinny like BBW but fades and slows, lower notes at the end. "whi whii whiiy whiiy whiy whi  whii  whiiy   wheew   wheeeww    wh-wh-wh     whiiit." Odd nasal call like a Sapsucker but whinier.

Black-banded Woodcreeper Dendrocolaptes picumnus [1] {132:4} Barred beneath horizontally with pale skeletal lines away from face. "whi whii whiiy whiiy whiy whi whii whiiy wheew wheeeww whit whit whit whiiit." Whinnying. Faster. More Gray Treefrog patterned compared to Amazonian Barred call.

Straight-billed Woodcreeper Dendroplex picus [1] {133:2} Very pale bill, streak headed. "kiip   kiip" and "chi chi chew chew che che chew chew chewww chewwwww."

Striped Woodcreeper Xiphorhynchus obsoletus [1] {133:3} Similar to SBWC, broader streaks extending onto back. Both pale billed. Rapid rising trill "tre tr-tr-tr ttree tr tr tre tree tee-ee ee ee eee   ewww."

Ocellated Woodcreeper Xiphorhynchus ocellatus [2] {133:4} Like Striped with dark beak. Slower that Striped, down and then back up. "chip chi chupp chee chee chii chii chuu chu chu chu-chheap."

Elegant (Spix's) Woodcreeper Xiphorhynchus elegans [1] {133:5} Dark beaked also, compare Ocellated voice. Rich ringing descending call. Bouncing, laughing. "Tii chii chiii chiii chiiiee chiieee chiieee chiieee chee chee cheew cheeww chew chew chew chew."

Buff-throated Woodcreeper Xiphorhynchus guttatus [1] {132:2} Strong eye stripe, buff throat, long mid sized beak. "Chee ewww       chert per pe per PEER PEER per per ert chert chert chert chert cher chert."

Lineated Woodcreeper Lepidocolaptes albolineatus [2] {134:6} 8 inch bird. Eye line behind eye and white with black margined breast streaks. Descending and speeding. "tip tee tee tee te te te ti-ti-ti tiuuu."

Red-billed Scythebill Campylorhamphus trochilirostris [3] {135:3} Bill distinct except for below species, long and curved. Back streaked as opposed to CBS. "Wee weee weee weee weee weee weeep wooo."

Curve-billed Scythebill Campylorhamphus procurvoides [3] {135:5} Unstreaked back. Call different. "wheee wheee whee wheeww w'w'w'w'wi'wi'wi."



Short-billed Leaftosser Sclerurus rufigularis [3] {154:3} High sharp "tseeps" mostly. "Tee tee te te tuu tuu tu tiii." Descending.

Tawny-throated Leaftosser Sclerurus mexicanus [3] {154:4} Long beak, not much throat contrast. "PEEe pEee pEee peee peee peeee peee peeee." Whistled high and descending.

Black-tailed Leaftosser Sclerurus caudacutus [1] {154:2} Darker tailed, white throat patch. Medium bill length. "CHEP pee peee ppeeee peeee peeeee." Woodpecker note followed by an agitated American Robin. Cheps sometimes repeated before the high note series. Mostly descending on the high notes speeding at the end.

Lesser Hornero Furnarius minor [1] {156:2} A ground walker, bobs head. A river island specialist. "Pip pi pi pi pip pi pi p p p p pip" descending like a laugh.


Dusky Spinetail Synallaxis moesta [3] {143:1} Really a foothill bird. Dark overall with rufous cap and wings. Machine gun, wren-sounding nasal call like dueting frogs "guh gu-ruh-ruh-ruh-gr-gr r r r r."

Dark-breasted Spinetail Synallaxis albigularis  [1] {142:4} Rufous capped with white throat over some black. "Dick de de dee de d d d d d." Descending bouncy.

Plain-crowned Spinetail Synallaxis gujanensis  [3] {142:2} Has no black on the white throat. White lore mark in front of the eye. Rufous winged as the other Synallaxis. Squeaky "Kee-uhh  wheh, kee-uhh  wheh." Sometimes just "Kee uhh." 

Ruddy Spinetail Synallaxis rutilans [3] {143:4} Rich ruddy adults with a dark throat patch. "Chick-pUuueeeh, chick-pUuueeh, chick-pUuueeeh." Essentially endless.

White-bellied Spinetail Synallaxis propinqua  [1] {142:6} Uniform grayish head with dark throat. Paler overall with black and white throat marks. Wren like harsh "Djrr djr djr djr djr djj djj djah djah djah" bouncing and fast chatter.


Parker’s Spinetail Cranioleuca vulpecula  [1] {144:3} River islands and rivers. Some white streaking on browner belly, whitish throat. Rufous over much of back and tail and nape. Woodpecker like "Tyew tyew tyew, tyew tyew tyew" often in trios. Harsh and smacking.

Speckled Spinetail Cranioleuca gutturata [3] {145:2} Dark speckled breast. Strong pale eye brow line. Rufous capped. Ultra high pitched "Tsee tseee tseeeee tseeeeeee tseee." Some buzzy accent notes at the end sometimes.

Plain Softtail Thripophaga fusciceps [R] {144:4} Uniform coloration. Rarely mixes with other birds apparently. Has a hanging nest instead of using holes. "Tch tchr tchr tchh tchh tch tch tch tch t t t t." Rapid bouncing descent.

Orange-fronted Plushcrown Metopothrix aurantiaca [1] {144:5} Warbler sized and warbler looking. Orange legged at close range. Canopy dweller in second growth. High pitched "pseet  pseet   pseeet   pseet."

Point-tailed Palmcreeper Berlepschia rikeri [2] {151:1} Striking zebra bird with red wings and tail. Restricted to palms in flooded forest. Pileated Woodpecker rhythm. But sharper. "Ttu tu tu tu tu ti tu ti tu ti ti ti ti ti ti." Rising up and speeding.

Chestnut-winged Hookbill Ancistrops strigilatus [1] {150:2} Streaky back and head with buffy streaked crown. A tangle and vine lover. Long rising sustained trill. Unending on some of the recordings.

Eastern Woodhaunter (Striped Foliage-Gleaner) Hyloctistes subulatus [2] {151:2} Double whistled "hEEer-hear, Heer-hear." Repeated.


Cinnamon-rumped Foliage-Gleaner Philydor pyrrhodes [2] {151:4} Much more cinnamon on throat and belly than RRFG. Wing contrast much stronger with dark wings in this species. Makes an amazing rising trill. "trrrrrUUEEEEEEEEEEE."

Rufous-rumped Foliage-Gleaner Philydor erythrocercum [3] {150:3} Rufous extends from tail to rump. Very little contrast between wings and body. Creamy throat, strong pale eye line. "tre tree TREE TREE tre tree tre tre teh teh teh" harsh and rusty, rising and falling.

Chestnut-winged Foliage-Gleaner Philydor erythropterum [1] {150:1} Compare with Hookbill above. And bigger with less eyeline than above two species. Much less streaky on back and head than Hookbill. Very bright chestnut wings. Canopy and end-branch lover. Double noted wren scold "treh treeh" and a trill.

Rufous-tailed Foliage-Gleaner Philydor ruficaudatum [1] {150:5} Slightly larger than RRFG. Rufous stops at tail top. "perp perp per per per per perp" lower and less raspy than RRFG. Like Carolina Wren chatter.


Olive-backed Foliage-Gleaner Automolus infuscatus [2] {152:6} Rufus tail set off from back. Dark streaked crown. Call is a sharp almost pure "hic-cupp." Like a hiccough from a Red-bellied Woodpecker. "r'rr'r'r'r'r'r'r'r'ruh" steady to slightly falling trill like a wren scold extended.

Dusky-cheeked (Bamboo) Foliage-Gleaner Anabazenops dorsalis  [3] {152:5} Sharp "kleet" notes. "tchrrk tchewrk tchewrk tchrk tchrk tchrk tchrk tchrk."


Buff-throated Foliage-Gleaner Automolus ochrolaemus [1] {152:4} Dark eyed and pale eye ring. "WEE weeh weeh wehr werh wuup." Falling and whiny. Distinct. Usually 5 or 6 notes and complete.

Brown-rumped Foliage-Gleaner Automolus melanopezus [R] {152:3} Frog like "wheep wheep chi churr r'r'r'r'r'r".

Chestnut-crowned Foliage-Gleaner Automolus rufipileatus [1] {152:2} "t't'trr'r'r'r'r'r'r'rr" descending rattle.

Ruddy Foliage-Gleaner Automolus rubiginosus [3] {152:1} 8 inch birds. Overall ruddy with dark eye. "kehhr-EHHTT   kehhr- EHHHT   kehhr-EHHHT."


Slender-billed Xenops Xenops tenuirostris [3] {155:1} Less striped body. Strong facial stripes up and down. "tseep  tseep  tseeep tseeep tssip." Very high pitched.

Plain Xenops Xenops minutus [1] {155:2} "tssseeep tseeeeEEp tseeEEEp TSEEP TSEEP." Stronger and faster than SBX.

Rufous-tailed Xenops Xenops milleri [3] {155:6} 4 inch bird red wings and tail with strongly striped head and body. "ttchchchCHCHCHchchchch eeerrrrrr" rising and falling rattle.




{spacing for larger genera}

Fasciated Antshrike Cymbilaimus lineatus [1] {157:2} Much smaller than Undulated. "weEEW wheeew whEEWW whEEWW WHEEWWWoo." Rising slowly.

Undulated Antshrike Frederickena unduligera [2] {158:5} Stonger crest and darker males than Fasciated. High pitched, rising sustained "Wheet whee whee whee whee wheee wheee wheeeet."

Great Antshrike Taraba major [1] {156:5} Bouncing ball "tchhrrrt tchrrt tchrrt..." followed by and odd "whuuaaaaat."


White-shouldered Antshrike Thamnophilus aethiops [3] {159:3} Male with white shoulder mark, red eye. Like a less marked Castelnau's. Females mostly rufus whereas Castelnau female is black. "aww awww awww awww awwwwt." Forest Falcon sounding.

Barred Antshrike Thamnophilus doliatus [1] {157:4} 6 inch bird. Females very rufous. Agitated "wert werrt werrt werrt wer wer werper DEEHH."

Cocha Antshrike Thamnophilus praecox [3] {159:4 1/2} All black males. Females with black head painted on red-orange body. Speeding, dropping slightly hooting notes like an alien spaceship. "tyoo tyoo tyoo tyooo tyoo tyoo tyoo tyoo tyoo."

Castlenau's Antshrike Thamnophilus cryptoleucus [1] {159:5} Strong white secondary and wing coverts white edgings. White back dots also. Female with back dots, dark winged. Rapid bouncing call with notes as "kwuk  kwuk   kwuk kwuk kwuk kukukuku kwuuuuuh."

Mouse-colored Antshrike Thamnophilus murinus [1] {159:1} Soft gray males with some covert markings. Female more brownish. "Eeew    eeew    eeew  whew-dOOoooo."

Plain-winged Antshrike Thamnophilus schistaceus [1] {159:2} Slaty gray males with no wing marks, dark cap. Females reddish brown. More notes per male series than MCA. "Peehhr  peehhr  peer peer peer peer pee-doOoo."


Spot-winged Antshrike Pygiptila stellaris [1] {161:2} Black cowled gray males with extensive wing spotting. Females rufous-winged and dark backed with no wing spotting. Song a stuttering frog-like "p-p-p-p-p-p-p-PEER."

Dusky-throated Antshrike Thamnomanes ardesiacus [1] {162:4} Pretty much looks plain slate gray. Buzzy with some insect tones. Different from the identical appearing Cinereous male and female. "Grrr   grrr   brrr  brrr geek geek geEEek geEEek."

Cinereous Antshrike Thamnomanes caesius [1] {162:1} Visually males like DTA. Females more rufous. Higher spaced notes then long bouncing fall off. "Dree dreeee dreee dree drr dr-dd-d d d d dri dri dri drii  d d d d d."

Black Bushbird Neoctantes niger [3] {174:2} [159:1] 16 cm males jet black and large beaked. Females with large red breast patch. "Wee   wee   weee  weee   weeee    weeee..." on and on.


Pygmy Antwren Myrmotherula brachyura [1] {164:2} [160:1] 8.5 cm birds with the shortest tails of the three streaked Myrmotherulas occurring here. Tail is also edged with white. Fainter moustache than the next bird. Females with yellow wash. "Turr turr turr ti ti ti ti ti ti ti." ti ti ti ti call given alone sounds like a fast titmouse call.

Moustached (Short-billed) Antwren Myrmotherula ignota obscura [1] {164:1} Both sexes with some yellowing. Almost unstreaked on the yellow breasts. Clear white (cream or yellowed in female) cheek patch above the dark moustache. "Tuipp tuiipp tuip tuip tui tui ti ti ti ti tit ti." Bouncing down rhythm much clearer and cleaner than Pygmy.

Amazonian Streaked Antwren Myrmotherula multostriata [1] {164:6} Male with no yellow. No cheek patches. Even throat is streaked. Female head burnished red brown to orange. Both sexes far more streaked beneath. "Tr r r rrr rrr rrr rrr rrr rr reeeeeehh." Trilled and rising. Call a nasal "eeew eww."

Plain-throated Antwren Myrmotherula hauxwelli [1] {175:5} No black on throat of either sex. Gray over light gray males with wing spotting in both sexes. Female belly burnished cream red almost orange with slightly darker back. Mostly secondary spotting. Follows streams and stays close to the ground. Rising raspy "Brree bree brree brreez breez breez breez bre bre bre."

White-flanked Antwren Myrmotherula axillaris [1] {166:2} Both sexes strongly white flanked. Female creamy brown. Repetitive "cheu-cheu cheu cheu cheu-chu chu cheeww chu chu."

Long-winged Antwren Myrmotherula longipennis [2] {165:4} Males with large black bib and wing marked mainly over secondary tips. Females as plain as it gets, no wing marks. Song is a rising sequence harsh on the second notes. "Durr-eee dur-eee dur-eee dureeee dureEee durreeEee."

Rio Suno Antwren Myrmotherula sunensis [3] {165:5} [162:7] Black bib of male all the way to belly. Song described by Parker as a short descending series of rising whistles. "Whee EEE whee EEEE EEEEEEE."

Gray Antwren Myrmotherula menetriesii [1] {165:2} No bib or throat patch in male. Female with very muted wing markings. Both sexes dark eyed. "Wheee whee whee whee whee wheeee wheee," accelerating and rising notes.


Stipple-throated Antwren Epinecrophylla haematonota [3] {163:6} High pitched in Blackburnian level, quavering descent. "Tee tee tee tee te te te te tee tee."

Yasuni (Brown-backed) Antwren Epinecrophylla fjeldsaai [3] {163:5} Eyes pale, back brown from crown to tail tip. Male with white dotted black throat patch. Song very similar to Stipple-throated in pitch and descending rhythm, fast and high.

Rufous-tailed Antwren Epinecrophylla erythrura [2] {163:1} Less chin patch than next bird. Female is plain throated. Rufous from tail to back of head in both sexes. Song high and off pace, descends slowly. "Whee  whee  wheee  wheeet  wheeet wheee whee whee." Also a spluttery rattle.

Ornate Antwren Epinecrophylla ornata [2] {163:2} [161:5] Black chinned, both sexes with strong rufous back patch. Female with striking black and white chin bib. Laughing fall off rhythm. High "tsiip" chips. "Tsee tsee tsee tseee tseee tseee tseee."


Dot-winged Antwren Microrhopias quixensis [3] {168:5} Both sexes flashy black and white birds. "whit cheet CHEET CHEET CHet chit chit chit chit." They have a repertoire of notes in shorter forms.

Chestnut-shouldered Antwren Terenura humeralis [3] {166:4} [164:5] Rufous chestnut back and rump. Strong eyeline with a pale face. "tew tew tew tew ti ti ti ti ti-t-t-t". Ash-winged Antwren T. spodioptila possible in area, male wings gray, no olive or yellows, browner, no eyestripe. Call very similar.

Dugand’s Antwren Herpsilochmus dugandi [3] {167:2} Strong eye stripe, female rufous capped. Single white line on tail. Bouncing table tennis ball, fast at the end. Lower pitched than the Terenuras.

Banded Antbird Dichrozona cincta [3] {170:5} Forest floor walker. Short tailed, strong wingbars, black spotting on the chest. "Pee peee peeeee peeeeee peeeeEE peeEEEEEE peeeEEEEEEE" for up to 10 or 12 beats. Rising up as it goes and whistled notes growing longer.


Gray Antbird Cercomacra cinerascens [1] {169:2} Not much paler than the next two Cercomacra. Males much less wing marked. Tail white tipped both sexes with white spots from below. Very vocal pairs. "Djurr-whEEeyyw djurr-whEEeeyyw djirr-whEEeyyww." Double noted phrases repeated like a buzzy cuckoo.

Blackish Antbird Cercomacra nigrescens 2nd[2] {169:3} Paler eyed than Black. Females much paler overall than the other two Cercomacra. Attends Army ants. "twa Twa CHEEER-E-E-E-E-E-RRR." Machine gun extended cheer's after variable number of twa or tew buildups to the end.

Black Antbird Cercomacra serva [2] {169:4} [165:1] Red-eyed in both sexes. Dense undergrowth birds. Bouncier call. "Churtt churt churt chEEt CHEET."


Black-faced Antbird Myrmoborus myotherinus [1] {170:2} [166:1] Strong red eye, black cheek and chin mark in male, bordered above by white. Females white chinned with black mask.  "Djeeer djeeer djeer djeer djeerr djeer djeer djeer." Mostly falling downward and slowing slightly. Ash-breasted Antbird M. lugubris possible in area. No wing markings in either sex. Lacks white facial border above mask. Islands only.

(Peruvian) Warbling-Antbird Hypocnemis peruviana [cantator] [1] {168:2} "Djee djee djee djee djee   djeerhh  djeerrhh   djeerrhhrr." Slowing and buzzier.

Yellow-browed Antbird Hypocnemis hypoxantha [1] {168:1} "Djeet djeet djeet djeet djeet djeet djeet." Fairly flat across the call, slowing slightly.

Black-and-White Antbird Myrmochanes hemileucus [1] {174:5} "Pupppppppprrr ppppupprrrrrrrrr" bouncing descending notes.

Spot-winged Antbird Schistocichla leucostigma [2] {171:2} Dark eyed and uniform dark males. Females with red-brown body. "Ti-ti-ii-i-i-i-e-e-e-e-E-eer." Rising and then slowing.

Silvered Antbird Sclateria naevia [1] Xeno {174:1} White throat chin and breast with gray offset back. Females brownish, same pattern. "Wheeee wee wee weee weee weee wee weee weee" accelerating and rising throughout, vibrato.


Plumbeous Antbird Myrmeciza hyperythra [1] {172:2} These three bare eye-patched birds have very different calls. This one has secondary wing spots and a large pale eye patch. Rapid fire burring "Wrr wrr wrr wrr wrr wrrr wrrr wrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrr." Accelerating.

White-shouldered Antbird Myrmeciza melanoceps [1] {172:4} Whistle, very different, sounds very much like our titmouse call. "Wrr wrrr whe-rrt wheee-rrt whee-rrt whee rrrttt." Slowing at the end two notes throughout.

Sooty Antbird Myrmeciza fortis [1] {172:1} No secondary spots. Small white shoulder mark. "Peee peewww pEEeeew pEEeee peee peee peee peeeeeee." Rising whistled notes.

Black-throated Antbird Myrmeciza atrothorax [R] {171:5} Not proven for La Selva area yet. "Ti ti ti tee tee tEee tEEee teee tiipp." Rising and with accentuated final note.


White-plumed Antbird Pithys albifrons [3] {173:6} "Peeuuw, peeueww, peeuww, peeuww." Separate mewing notes like a scolding wren.

Lunulated Antbird Gymnopithys lunulatus [3] {173:3} "PEew pee pee peee peee pee peueew pee peee peeeee peeeuwwww." Slowing quickly after spin down about 7 or 8 notes. Like an antbird Canyon Wren. Last note screechy and low.

Bicolored (White-cheeked) Antbird Gymnopithys leucaspis [2] {173:1} "TUUEEee twEEeee twee twe twe twe twe twe twe weet weet weet." Falling off and slowing.

Hairy-crested Antbird Rhegmatorhina melanosticta [3] {173:2} "WEE weee wee wee djjrr djjrr." Whistles and then buzzy downward djjjrs.

Dot-backed Antbird Hylophylax punctulata [1] {175:1} [171:4] Whiter face mask in both sexes compared to Spot-backed. White spots on female back. "WeEEe peeuuuww,  WeEEe peEeuuww, weee peEeuw." Doubled and repetitive.

Spot-backed Antbird Hylophylax naevius [2] {175:2} Gray faced. More yellows and creams over the back and tail of male than Dotties. Yellow spots on female's back. "Wee tee-wEee tee-weEe tee-wEee tee-wEee tee-wEee tee-wee tee-wee chip."

Scale-backed Antbird Willisornis poecilonotus [1] {175:3} Truly white scales on dark back. Females with orange rufous bellies. "Heee hewweeee heweee heweee hewee hee heEEeee heEEEee." Slow rising whistles up the scale.

Wing-banded Antbird Myrmornis torquata [R] {175:4} [167:3] Hops, tail upturned. Black chinned males, orange chinned females. "Whee wheew wheew wheeW WHEEw WHEE WHEE WHEEE whe wheat." Squeaky and rising to the end.

Black-spotted Bare-eye Phlegopsis nigromaculata [1] {172:6} Red bare eye area. Sexes similar and they look two toned compared to next bird. Both are true ant followers. Both are tail fanners. "He-e-EEee-ewwww, he-e-eeEe-eeeewww eeww  heee-ewewwww" descending and buzzy notes like buzz saws are interspersed.

Reddish-winged Bare-eye Phlegopsis erythroptera [3] {172:5} Distinct sexual differences. Both red bare eyed.  "RhEE whEeee wheee where where wheh-unhh." Much higher pitched than above. No buzzing notes. Sometimes long pauses between the 5 to 6 note series of falling notes.



Rufous-capped Antthrush Formicarius colma [2] {176:5} "Teh tu tu tu tu tu tu tu tu tu tu t eee ee ee e e e e" described as froglike piping slowing and descending to a last up rise.

Black-faced Antthrush Formicarius analis [1] {176:7} "Tehrt     tu tu tu tu tu tu tu toot," first note followed by a pause and then a spinning wheel.

Noble (Striated) Antthrush Chamaeza nobilis [1] {176:1} "Poop poop poop poop poo poo poo poo poo poo poo pu pu pu pu pu pu." Owlish and rapidly descending. Equivalent to the higher elevation Short-tailed but with different tones.



Scaled Antpitta Grallaria guatimalensis [3] {177:6} "Put put put put who who who who whoo whooo WHO WHOOO wup." Owlish classic rapid fire.

Ochre-striped Antpitta Grallaria dignissima [3] {177:1} "who HEWW ewwww," distinctive triple hollow whistle.

White-lored (Fulvous-bellied) Antpitta Hylopezus fulviventris [3] {181:5} "Hoop hoop hoop hoop hooop." Three to five hoops.

Thrush-like Antpitta Myrmothera campanisona [1] {180:6} "Whuu whoo whuu whuu whou whoo whoo whoo whoo." Rising and then falling slightly, hollow, owl like notes.



Chestnut-belted Gnateater Conopophaga aurita [2] {181:1} Both sexes strong eyeline below chestnut cap. Metallic rattle.

Ash-throated Gnateater Conopophaga peruviana [3] {181:2} Gray throated males. Stands erect. Fainter eyeline but raises pale areas like horns when excited. "Three-ditt  three-diittt." Sharp and sudden calls like a flycatcher.



Rusty-belted Tapaculo Liosceles thoracicus [1] {182:2} Hollow whistles "tooot    toot     toot   toot toot tewoot."



Slender-footed Tyrannulet Zimmerius gracilipes [2] {189:4} "huueeet?   hyouuu." Spaced and questioning.

Golden-faced Tyrannulet Zimmerius chrysops [U] {189:2}

White-lored Tyrannulet Ornithion inerme [2] {194:5} 3 1/2 inch birds, like miniature Blue-headed Vireos. Sometimes just gives high intro series. "wee wee wee weet wher where whe whe whe whe whet."

Southern Beardless-Tyrannulet Camptostoma obsoletum [3] {194:2}

Mouse-colored Tyrannulet Phaeomyias murina [3]

Yellow-crowned Tyrannulet Tyrannulus elatus  [2] {194:6} "wee-HEWW    weeee HEWWW." Repeated like a whistled Eastern Phoebe call.

Forest Elaenia Myiopagis gaimardii [1] {190:6} "Tweeee?    pee tweeee?"

Gray Elaenia Myiopagis caniceps [2] {190:4} "Tsee tsee tsee see see seee    see se de de de."

Yellow-crowned Elaenia Myiopagis flavivertex [1] {190:3} "per per peer Djeer djeer djeerr djeer djeeer djeeeer." Number of djeers varies.

Large Elaenia Elaenia spectabilis [3] {191:2} Like a Yellow-bellied Elaenia for the lowlands. "wee pweee pweee."

Small-billed Elaenia Elaenia parvirostris [3] {192:3} Yellow wing bar wash. Eyering. Green backed like an Empid. "peet weee wee whoo-jrrrrt."

Mottle-backed Elaenia Elaenia gigas [1] {191:4} Very odd "Tchee buh bee jee djjjeEEeee" repeated.

Amazonian Scrub-Flycatcher Sublegatus obscurior [3] {193:4} "Whee wheeEEEE, whee wheeEE teaaaaa."

River Tyrannulet Serpophaga hypoleuca  [2] {193:1}

Lesser Wagtail-Tyrant Stigmatura napensis [1] {193:6} "Chi chi wee deee dit CHEWWW, chi chee wee diit dit CHEWW." Repetitive, bouncing chatty.

Cinnamon Manakin-Tyrant Neopipo cinnamomea [3] {207:1} "pii peee peeee PEEE pEeee peeee pee." Slow fall off rhythm downward.

Ochre-bellied Flycatcher Mionectes oleagineus [1] {198:4}

Ringed Antpipit Corythopis torquatus [2] {206:1} "Heee U-hee-youu". Repeated. Pipit with a black streaked blaze on chest. Mostly a walker.

Short-tailed Pygmy-Tyrant Myiornis ecaudatus [2] {199:2} 2 1/2 inch gray headed tiny bird. Insect like short trills, sometimes doubled. "Tre-e-e-et".

Double-banded Pygmy-Tyrant Lophotriccus vitiosus [2] {199:6} Rattled "djeeeer" descending, much lower than STPT notes.

Black-and-White Tody-Tyrant Poecilotriccus capitalis [R] {202:3} Striking males, black backed and white eye ringed. Females rufous browed and green backed. Squirrelish "chipp che chee chwee chwee" notes.

White-eyed Tody-Tyrant Hemitriccus zosterops [2] {200:1} Greenish overall and streak breasted. Yellow wing edgings on secondaries anc coverts. Sharp "pip pip pip pip" notes in short and longer sequences.

Yellow-browed Tody-Flycatcher Todirostrum chrysocrotaphum [1] {203:2} The necklaced spot breasted form in Ecuador. Bright yellow slash behind the eye. High insect "tssip tssipp tsipp tsip tsip tsip-tsip" notes repeated.

Spotted Tody-Flycatcher Todirostrum maculatum [1] {203:3} Yellow eyed, longer beaked than YB. No yellow on head. Streaked beneath, spotted throat. Higher pitched "tipp tipp teep teep teep teep" notes.

Rusty-fronted Tody-Flycatcher Todirostrum latirostris [U] {202:2} River edge and river front. Buffy eyering and tawny wing covert edges. "tchur-r-r-r-r" notes, low pitched and descending.

Brownish Twist-wing (Flycatcher) Cnipodectes subbrunneus [2] {204:1} Large flycatcher. Red-eyed. With rufous brown tail. Shaggy headed appearance. "tik tk tk pee-EWW pee-EWW pew."

Rufous-tailed Flatbill Ramphotrigon ruficauda [R] {204:2} Bright rufous tail and wing markings. "meeEEW yew, meeEW yew." Mellow climbing mewling notes.

Dusky-tailed Flatbill Ramphotrigon fuscicauda [VR] {204:3} Less rufous tailed, very different voice. More streak breasted than RT. "PEER tr peer, PEER trp peer." High and loud on first note.

Olivaceous Flatbill Rhynchocyclus olivaceus [R] {204:6} Greens and yellows, dark eyed. "wee wee weE WEEE WEE whi chit." Climbing wee's with chatter at the end. Sometimes squeaky.

Zimmer's (Yellow-margined) Flycatcher Tolmomyias assimilis [2] {205:2} Gray headed and gray eyed, green yellow body. "zhree zhreeee, zhreee zhreee" raspy whistles.

Gray-crowned (Flatbill) Flycatcher Tolmomyias poliocephalus [1] {205:4} Gray crowned and pale eyed. Dark tipped beak. "tuee twee tweeee TUUEEE?" Clear rising falling whistles.

Yellow-breasted (Olive-faced) Flycatcher (Flatbill) Tolmomyias flaviventris [viridiceps] [1] {205:5} Very yellow breasted. No gray on head. Dark eyed. "TSWEET TSWEET" notes. Sometimes lower buildup to these sharper notes.

Orange-eyed Flatbill (Flycatcher) Tolmomyias traylori [R] {205:3} Very orange iris. Gray crown. "zreeEe zreep, zree zreeep." Rising notes.

White-crested Spadebill Platyrinchus platyrhynchos [3] {206:2} Mainly a sharp "Breewwwpp." Repeated over and over.

Golden-crowned Spadebill Platyrinchus coronatus [3] {206:4} High pitched rising trill "tieee-e-e-E-E-e-e-ipp".

Amazonian Royal Flycatcher Onychorhynchus coronatus [3] {211:6} "PEE-yuk" mostly as the call note repeated.

Ruddy-tailed Flycatcher Terenotriccus erythrurus [3] {207:2} "Pee-heww." Faint whistle, wheezy.

Black-tailed Flycatcher Myiobius atricaudus [U] {197:1} Weak "tsipp" notes mainly.

Whiskered Flycatcher Myiobius barbatus [3] {197:2} Split from Sulphur rumped. Same yellow rump appearance. Mainly soft "tseet tseet" notes.

Olive-sided Flycatcher Contopus borealis [3]

Eastern Wood-Pewee Contopus virens [2]

Willow (Traill's) Flycatcher Empidonax traillii [1]

Alder Flycatcher Empidonax alnorum [2]

Euler's Flycatcher Lathrotriccus euleri  [3] {209:2} Looks like one of our Empids. "DZEEE-ehrr" and "DZEE whip." Most often.

Fuscous Flycatcher Cnemotriccus fuscatus  [1] {209:5} A rather plain looking bird like an Empid lightly painted with some rust on the wingbars and eyebrow. Certainly an unbelievable flycatcher call. Very frog-like laughing "Dewwy chew cheww chow."

Drab Water-Tyrant Ochthornis littoralis  [1] {213:2} Small mouse brown with a little rust in the cap. Always near river edges. "Chip chew tree-chew tree-chew tree-chew tree-chew." Excited and fast chatter.

Riverside Tyrant Knipolegus orenocensis  [R] {212:4} Male jet black with red eye. "pwip pwip pwip pee tuk." Sometimes excited, sharp short notes overall.

White-headed Marsh-Tyrant Arundinicola leucocephala  [3] {211:2} Chipping notes. Distinctive white headed bird. Riverine.

Long-tailed Tyrant Colonia colonus [3]

Bright-rumped Attila Attila spadiceus [1] {227:2}

Citron-bellied Attila Attila citriniventris [3] {227:1} Contrasting gray head and rufous body. "wer wur wee wee wee WEE WEE WEE WEE wheewww." Rising and loud.

Cinnamon Attila Attila cinnamomeus [1] {227:3} All cinnamon, dark eye and beak. "pur WHEEErr. WHee-eer whee whee."

Grayish Mourner Rhytipterna simplex [1] {229:2} All gray and much smaller than the Pihas. Sounds like a Red-bellied Woodpecker call with a loud "DJJIRRT" at the end.

Sirystes (Flycatcher) Sirystes sibilator [1] {222:6} Gray body, dark head and dark wings and dark tail. Like a sharply marked Myiarchus. "p'Wheer pEee puuu." Last two notes like a squeaky toy.

Short-crested Flycatcher Myiarchus ferox  [1] {224:2} "trEE-E-Err." Repeated. Like a sharp Spring Peeper note.

Swainson's Flycatcher Myiarchus swainsoni [3] {224:1} Austral migrant. No rufous in tail. Sometimes masked. "chi-wurrrR-R-R ehhr." "CHRR CHRR CHRR cheer."

Dusky-capped Flycatcher Myiarchus tuberculifer [3] {224:4} The classic "wEee-urrr."

Great Kiskadee Pitangus sulphuratus  [1] {221:3}

Lesser Kiskadee Philohydor lictor [1]

Boat-billed Flycatcher Megarhynchus pitangua [1]

Social Flycatcher Myiozetetes similis [1]

Gray-capped Flycatcher Myiozetetes granadensis [1] {220:2}

Dusky-chested Flycatcher Myiozetetes luteiventris [3] {220:1} "deww deww dew djjr djjjr djjr." Western Kingbirdish in appearance.

Sulphur-bellied Flycatcher Myiodynastes luteiventris [1] {219:3}

Streaked Flycatcher Myiodynastes maculatus [1]

Piratic Flycatcher Legatus leucophaius [1] "weeEE-eee" interspersed with "we wee wee wee weeep".

Crowned Slaty-Flycatcher Empidonomus aurantioatrocristatus [2] {222:3} Strong eyeline with a hidden colored cap. High thin insect "tzeeet" calls.

Variegated Flycatcher Empidonomus varius [3] {219:1} Like a Piratic with heavier breast streaking and pale secondary and primary wing edges. Thin shrill "t'zeeee" call.

Sulphury Flycatcher Tyrannopsis sulphurea [2] {223:1} Tropical Kingbirdish in appearance. Calls are high "tseeeE" notes.

Fork-tailed Flycatcher Tyrannus savana [3]

Eastern Kingbird Tyrannus tyrannus [2]

Tropical Kingbird Tyrannus melancholicus [1]

White-throated Kingbird Tyrannus albogularis [3] {223:4} Like a Western Kingbird with a white head. Migrates to major rivers. High rusty twitter.



Black-necked Red-Cotinga Phoenicircus nigricollis [3] {234:2} Loud sharp "KYEWW kyeewww" and "Wheeew  wheeww" like nasal parrots.

Purple-throated Cotinga Porphyrolaema porphyrolaema [3] {233:3} Flycatcher like descending "Kyeeeewwww."

Plum-throated Cotinga Cotinga maynana [1] {233:6} Male dark blue, plum throated and yellow eyed. Brown scaley female also yellow eyed. Recording is of mechanical wing sound.

Spangled Cotinga Cotinga cayana [1] {233:4} Dark winged and paler blue than Plum. Female dark eyed and very plain. No recordings anywhere noted. Ted says "usually silent."

Screaming Piha Lipaugus vociferans [1] {229:1} Plain gray brown, like a Mockercatbird. Damn amazing call. "Ooo-ah ooh-ah ooh-ah" preamble then "SQUEEE SQEEE UHHH."

Bare-necked Fruitcrow Gymnoderus foetidus [1] {233:2} Males in flight with mostly white wings above. Mostly silent with some hoots or booms during display.

Purple-throated Fruitcrow Querula purpurata [1] {229:6} "Coow uhh   cooow uh   cowww uhh" repeated.

Amazonian Umbrellabird Cephalopterus ornatus [2] {233:1} Even female is crested on forehead. Hollow "OOoooow."



Golden-headed Manakin Pipra erythrocephala [1] {238:3} Females pale beaked and brown eyed. Buzzy "Djewww and whee-ewww." Song longer, "weeew sweeee chit chit," and combinations.

White-crowned Manakin Dixiphia pipra [2] {236:2} Females gray headed and red eyed. Calls "wrrrrrtttt-Teee." Odd other notes, defy easy description.

Blue-crowned Manakin Lepidothrix coronata [1] {237:6} Females red eyed and yellow bellied. "swee kuh-WUERRTT" froglike, three notes.

Wire-tailed Manakin Pipra filicauda [1] {238:1} [217:3] Both sexes wire-tailed. Male striking black red yellow. Call a high pure "weeEEP." And "NEeeww" a mewling note.

Blue-backed Manakin Chiroxiphia pareola [1] {237:2} Female darker blue green and red eyed. Very short tailed. "Whoo-whiiit or Wee-oo-Wittt." Whistled, clear, like you are calling your dog. Notes like a Kingbird when chatty.

White-bearded Manakin Manacus manacus [3] {237:4} "Chee-leewww, and purrrt," and also with a strong electric mechanical sound, popping and serial popping.

Striped Manakin Machaeropterus regulus [2] {235:1} Sneezy "clee-CHEEE."

Green Manakin Xenopipo holochlora [3] {236:4} Straight plain green in both sexes. Longer tailed than some of the female manakins of other species. Notes "Twueee      twueee     twueeeee."

Dwarf Tyrant-Manakin Tyranneutes stolzmanni [1] {235:4} 3 1/4 inch bird that calls alot. Green backed and cream bellied. "DJEWW-whiieett." Fast, explosive, first note very buzzy, second a quick whistle.

Orange-crowned Manakin Heterocercus aurantiivertex [3] {236:5} Larger, orange bellied, olive backed and longer tailed. Chatter, "tee ee ee ee ee ee euu."

Wing-barred Piprites (Manakin) Piprites chloris [1] {234:6} Looks like a flycatcher with yellow wingbars. Green back with yellow lores and throat. "Hoee peep peep peep peep pee-e-p-p peep peep," stuttering note toward the end. Hollow sounding notes. Like a small owl.



Black-tailed Tityra Tityra cayana [1] {228:1} Croaking duck call.

Masked Tityra Tityra semifasciata [3]

Black-crowned Tityra Tityra inquisitor [1] {228:4} Call more woodpecker-like and squeaky.

Varzea Schiffornis (Greater Manakin) Schiffornis major [1] {234:4} A cinnamon rufous Schiffornis with some greying on the head. "Heee who-ittt whoo wEEeee?" And variations. Strongly whistled, questioning.

Thrush-like (Brown-winged) Schiffornis Schiffornis turdina [3] {234:5} "teeewww  tui-cheeEEEEEE."

Cinereous Mourner Laniocera hypopyrra [2] {229:4} A Mourner with a yellow eyering. Buffy tips to the wing coverts giving its shoulders a spotted look. Call a repetitive "ee-you-wee ee-you-weee ee-you-weee eeyouweee."

White-browed Purpletuft Iodopleura isabellae [2] {228:6} Mostly black and white sparrow sized bird. Sallies for insects up high. "weee whitititit." Squeaky call  but quiet mainly.

Chestnut-crowned Becard Pachyramphus castaneus [3] {225:6} Gray band from lores across face, separating chestnut cap from back. Smaller than Pink-throated females. "Pee peee peee peeeww." Descending.

White-winged Becard Pachyramphus polychopterus [1] {226:2} Males all black bellied with white wingbars and tail accents. "Tuu tu tu tuu tu tu tuu twoo." Musical and whistled.

Black-capped Becard Pachyramphus marginatus [2] {226:3} Males gray bellied. Wing coverts and secondaries white edged. "Heww heew wIIEttt weeee." Like a bluebird chortle, whistled.

Pink-throated Becard Pachyramphus minor [1] {225:4} Male dark and pink throated with a slash of pink. Female like many rufous and gray becards. 7 inch birds, bigger than most of the rest of this genus here. "TeeeeEEuuuwww." Drawn and whistled.



Slaty-capped Shrike-Vireo Vireolanius leucotis [3] {239:3} "Peeeurr   peeurr   peeurr   peeurrr." Repeated slurring whistle with pauses.

Red-eyed Vireo Vireo olivaceus [1]

Yellow-green Vireo Vireo flavoviridis [1] {239:1} Calls rapid paced compared to R-EV. But variable.

Dusky-capped Greenlet Hylophilus hypoxanthus [1] {240:4} All three greenlets smaller than Red-eyed Vireo. This species is dark eyed. "Tee whEEcheee weeyou." Warbler like.

Lemon-chested Greenlet Hylophilus thoracicus [R] {240:6} Pale eyed with bright yellow breast band. "Wee pee  wee pee  wee pee  wee pee  weee."

Tawny-crowned Greenlet Hylophilus ochraceiceps [3] {240:2} Tawny crown and pale eye. A clear descending whistle "heeeeuuu," most often.



Violaceous Jay Cyanocorax violaceus [1] {241:2} "Jeeeah   jeeerr   jeeeup." Very jay-like, with some flicker harshness.



White-thighed Swallow Neochelidon tibialis [R] {243:4} Small and dark with deeply notched tail.

White-winged Swallow Tachycineta albiventer [1] {245:2} White rump and white upper secondaries.

Brown-chested Martin Progne tapera [2]

Gray-breasted Martin Progne chalybea [1] {242:2} Much like our Purple Martin in appearance and voice. Slightly higher pitched than Purple. Also a rolling descending "tree tre tree treee tree deww dew dew."

Blue-and-White Swallow Notiochelidon cyanoleuca [R]

White-banded Swallow Atticora fasciata [1] {243:7} Distinct white band across the chest. A pleasant twitter.

Southern Rough-winged Swallow Stelgidopteryx ruficollis [1]

Sand Martin (Bank Swallow) Riparia riparia [1]

Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica [1]

Cliff Swallow Hirundo pyrrhonota [R]



Thrush-like Wren Campylorhynchus turdinus [1] {246:1} 7 inch spackled Mockingbird. Harsh ringing duets. "Too two two SCHOCK, two twoo twoo SCHOCK."

Coraya Wren Thryothorus coraya [1] {248:1} Carolina with a black face mask. "Heeerrr toe toe toe toe toe. Heerr toe two two two two." Other whistled phrases before the "two two two two."

Buff-breasted Wren Thryothorus leucotis [2] {248:7} Muted pale face, rufous body, wings and tail. Characteristic "psst Tcheww tcheww     psstt tcheww tcheww."

Southern House Wren Troglodytes musculus [2] {250:2}

White-breasted Wood-Wren Henicorhina leucosticta [1] {246:5} Short tailed, strong black and white head pattern.

Scaly-breasted (Southern Nightingale) Wren Microcerculus marginatus [1] {247:4} Very white throat and upper chest, dull dark brown upper otherwise. Walks and teeters hind end. Whistles single notes, up-down, in and out of tune, variable pauses like it has sometimes lost the melody or the reason for singing. Series sometimes going for two minutes or more. 

Musician Wren Cyphorhinus aradus [3] {247:2} Dark, mostly rufous, often travels in pairs. Occasionally follows ants. The mad whistler. Takes up many patterns of whistled phrases. Like a happy drunk. Pauses between. Some rattling preludes.



Tawny-faced (Half-collared) Gnatwren Microbates cinereiventris [3] {251:4} Red face patch, white throat and long bill.

Long-billed Gnatwren Ramphocaenus melanurus [2] Plain gray-brown with no face contrast.

Tropical Gnatcatcher Polioptila plumbea [2]



Black-capped Donacobius Donacobius atricapillus [1] {250:4} "Whoop whoop whoop whoo-iit whoo-iittt," vaguely cardinal like with some screeching subtext.



Swainson's Thrush Catharus ustulatus [2]

Gray-cheeked Thrush Catharus minimus [R]

Black-billed Thrush Turdus ignobilis [1] {256:2} Gray brown with white throat. Harsher two and three note phrases, fairly hurried.

Lawrence's Thrush Turdus lawrencii [2] {255:1} Like our Robin only darker brown beneath. Nice eye ring. Orange bill. Like disjunct Mockingbird phrases, with whistles sometimes very high pitched. Sounds imitative. With regular heavy pauses.

Hauxwell's Thrush Turdus hauxwelli [2]  {256:4} Pretty rufous overall with dark ring on eye. Dark bill. Much faster phrasing like a more typical Turdus. Less pausing, more Robin singing.

White-necked Thrush Turdus albicollis [1] {255:2} White throat mark beneath streaking. "Wheewww." Echoing call. Phrasing fast with vibrato.



Yellow Warbler Dendroica petechia aestiva [3]

Blackburnian Warbler Dendroica fusca [R]

Blackpoll Warbler Dendroica striata  [1]

American Redstart Setophaga ruticilla [3]

Northern Waterthrush Seiurus noveboracensis [R]

Canada Warbler Wilsonia canadensis [3]

Buff-rumped Warbler Basileuterus fulvicauda [3]



Bananaquit Coereba flaveola [3] {293:5}

Magpie Tanager Cissopis leverianus  [1] {257:5}

Orange-headed Tanager Thlypopsis sordida [2] {260:5} Yellow orange head sharply demarcated from gray body.

Yellow-backed Tanager Hemithraupis flavicollis [3] {260:2} Males dark backed with yellow throat and yellow rump.

Guira Tanager Hemithraupis guira [3] {260:2}

Gray-headed Tanager Eucometis penicillata [2] {262:5} Gray head is shaggy crested with pale feathers.

Fulvous Shrike-Tanager Lanio fulvus [1] {262:1} Oriole like, black head and wings. "tcheww wheat tcheww tcheww." Repetitive with slight variance.

Flame-crested Tanager Tachyphonus cristatus [2] {261:2} Large yellow rump patch on this Tachyphonus.

Fulvous-crested Tanager Tachyphonus surinamus [2] {261:1} Orange rumped Tachyphonus.

White-shouldered Tanager Tachyphonus luctuosus [3] {261:6}

Silver-beaked Tanager Ramphocelus carbo [1] {257:2}

Masked Crimson Tanager Ramphocelus nigrogularis [1] {257:3} Black belly and wings over cardinal red Ramphocelus. Sweet "wheet tyou teeyou   wheet tyou twyoo."

Blue-gray Tanager Thraupis episcopus [1]

Palm Tanager Thraupis palmarum [1]

Opal-rumped Tanager Tangara velia [2] {270:3} Striking with pale rump and mostly purple body.

Opal-crowned Tanager Tangara callophrys [1] {270:4} Similar to OR but golden brow boomerang.

Paradise Tanager Tangara chilensis [1] {270:2} Yellow faced with bright color patch markings.

Green-and-gold Tanager Tangara schrankii [1] {269:7} Budgie colored with black face mask.

Yellow-bellied Tanager Tangara xanthogastra [2] {269:5} Like G&G with no fask mask and some scaling.

Masked Tanager Tangara nigrocincta [2] {269:2} Lavender hooded, dark blue and purple body.

Turquoise Tanager Tangara mexicana [1] {270:1} Yellow shoulder marks and belly over dark purple and black.

Bay-headed Tanager Tangara gyrola [3]

Blue Dacnis Dacnis cayana [1]

Black-faced Dacnis Dacnis lineata [1] {272:2} Bright yellow eye on the strong face mask.

Yellow-bellied Dacnis Dacnis flaviventer [1] {272:1} Oriole like colors with yellow moustache in male and full yellow belly. Female plain brown with light mottling.

White-bellied Dacnis Dacnis albiventris [VR] {272:4} Rare, masked with purple head and wings and a white belly. Bright yellow eye in both sexes.

Green Honeycreeper Chlorophanes spiza [1]

Short-billed Honeycreeper Cyanerpes nitidus [3] {272:6} Like a short beaked Purple with red legs.

Purple Honeycreeper Cyanerpes caeruleus [1]

Red-legged Honeycreeper Cyanerpes cyaneus [R] {272:5} Strong blue crown and black back mark with red legs compared to Purple.

Swallow Tanager Tersina viridis [1] {270:7} Rising high "t'seeEE".

Buff-throated Saltator Saltator maximus [1] "Tsee tsee peer puhr see you." And variations.

Grayish Saltator Saltator coerulescens [1] {291:1}

Slate-colored (Slaty) Grosbeak Saltator grossus [2]

Yellow-shouldered Grosbeak Parkerthraustes humeralis [3] {290:1} Like a black masked Saltator. Yellow-green backed.



Variable Seedeater Sporophila corvina [1]

Lined Seedeater Sporophila lineola [VR] {284:2} Often with Lesson's. Only males separable. White crown mark and moustache.

Lesson's Seedeater Sporophila bouvronides [3] {284:1} White moustache mark, dark crown.

Black-and-white Seedeater Sporophila luctuosa [3]

Yellow-bellied Seedeater Sporophila nigricollis [R]

Chestnut-bellied Seedeater Sporophila castaneiventris [1]

Lesser Seed-Finch Oryzoborus angolensis [2]

Large-billed Seed-Finch Oryzoborus crassirostris [3] {286:3} An inch shorter than BBSF and with a very pale bill in both sexes.

Black-billed Seed-Finch Oryzoborus atrirostris [3] {286:4} Black beaked in both sexes.

Red-capped Cardinal Paroaria gularis [1] {286:7} Voice like our cardinal with broken phrasing.

Orange-billed Sparrow Arremon aurantiirostris [3]

Yellow-browed Sparrow Ammodramus aurifrons [1]



Summer Tanager Piranga rubra [3]

Scarlet Tanager Piranga olivacea [3]

Red-crowned Ant-Tanager Habia rubica [3]

Rose-breasted Grosbeak Pheucticus ludovicianus [3]

Blue-black Grosbeak Cyanocompsa cyanoides [3]



Pale-eyed Blackbird Agelasticus xanthophthalmus [R] {300:3} 8 inch black bird with white eye.

Red-breasted Blackbird Sturnella militaris [U] {300:5} Distinct, red breast plate.

Oriole Blackbird Gymnomystax mexicanus [1] {299:7} Black wings, back and tail on a yellow body. Noises like our grackle. Like a golden bellied grackle.

Velvet-fronted Grackle Lampropsar tanagrinus [3] {298:6} Small dark beak compared to all dark Caciques. Nasal bubbling notes "whit too CHeww cheww, whit whit..."

Shiny Cowbird Molothrus bonariensis [1]

Giant Cowbird Scaphidura oryzivora [1]

Moriche (Epaulet) Oriole Icterus chrysocephalus [2] {299:2} Like a Cacique with a yellow nape and crown. Slow paced Robin phrasing but with whistles and trills.

Orange-backed Troupial Icterus croconotus [2] {299:5} Big oriole with a white wing patch on black wings and black face mask, otherwise orange. "HUUEEETT? too too too HUUEEET?"

Yellow-rumped Cacique Cacicus cela [1] Yellow shoulder marks and yellow rump and tail base. Voice like a chatty parrot tormenting a monkey with a taser. And imitates parrots themselves.

Red-rumped Cacique Cacicus haemorrhous [3] {297:7} Chatty but does not imitate parrots.

Solitary (Black) Cacique Cacicus solitarius [1] {298:7} Chunkier than Ecuadorian, with dark eye. Froglike "gwahhhh." And "teer teer teer."

Ecuadorian Cacique Cacicus sclateri [3] {298:5} Smaller, blue eyed and all black. "chik chik chik" and "wu wup wup CHEE-AHHR."

Crested Oropendola Psarocolius decumanus [1] {296:5}Mostly blackish, like a giant Cacique. "glug e-e-e-e-e-e-e Bop" central tones like someone working the teeth of a comb. Impressive call.

Green Oropendola Psarocolius viridis [3]  {296:4} Broad yellow lateral tail, rufous belly, otherwise green with pale beak. Blue eyed. Compare the much commoner Russet-backed. "glug lug glug glug glug oww bububup." Liquid and rising.

Russet-backed Oropendola Psarocolius angustifrons [1] {296:} Dark eyed with minimal rust on belly. Amazonian form has an all dark bill. "g-g-gooo puck achEEoo." A gurgle followed by a trill.

Casqued Oropendola Clypicterus oseryi [2]  {296:3} Smaller 15 inch bird. Pale eye. Dark rufous over most of back and body. Green throat and upper breast. Yellow beak and faceplate. Forest interior bird. Loud "djEERRROOPP." From distance just sounds like a yelp "djjowwwwppp."

Olive Oropendola Psarocolius bifasciatus [2] {296:6} 20 inch males. Pink facial mark below eye. Gray black beak with red tip. Rolling "g g g-r-r-r-r r r cu cu ROH."

Band-tailed Oropendola Ocyalus latirostris [VR] {297:1} Liquid parrot-like noises with "choo, gluck and rhawww" noises.



Orange-bellied Euphonia Euphonia xanthogaster [1] {303:3} Dark throated males.

White-vented Euphonia Euphonia minuta [3] {303:6} Yellow cap only back to eyes (half cap) and dark throated males.

Thick-billed Euphonia Euphonia laniirostris [2] {303:2} Males same pattern as OBE but in yellow. Bill distinctly bigger in both sexes.

Rufous-bellied Euphonia Euphonia rufiventris [1] {303:1} Males with no color cap, dark throated.

White-lored (Golden-bellied) Euphonia Euphonia chrysopasta [1] {304:2} Gray capped males, all golden beneath. Females with distinct gray belly, yellow rump, gray cap.